外研社 | 中华思想文化术语汇总

原文 译文
画龙点睛 rendering the final touch
五经 five classics
知行 knowledge and application
逍遥 carefree
前事不忘,后事之师 Past experience, if not forgotten, is a guide for the future.
淡泊明志,宁静致远 Indifference to fame and fortune characterizes a high aim in life, and leading a quiet life helps on.
人文 Renwen
文章 literary writing
沉郁 melancholy
刚柔 Gang and Rou
内美 inner beauty
典雅 classical elegance
无欲则刚 People with no covetous desires stand upright.
别集 individual collection
名实 name and substance
三思而行 think thrice before acting
小说 fiction
史才三长 three strengths of a good historian
四端 four initiators
政者正也 Governance means rectitude.
天理 natural law
讽谕 subtle admonition
悲慨 melancholy and resentment
京(京师) capital of a country
气象 prevailing features
止戈为武 Stopping war is a true craft of war.
会心 heart-to-heart communication
求放心 search for the lost heart
民惟邦本 people being the foundation of the state
实事求是 seek truth from facts
师直为壮 Troops will be powerful when fighting a just cause.
经济 to govern and help the people
正心 rectify one’s mind
宇宙 universe
知行合一 unity of knowledge and action
文笔 writing and writing technique
兴趣 Xingqu (charm)
Qu (melody)
见利思义 think of righteousness in the face of gain
变化 change
艺术 art
小人 petty man
三玄 three metaphysical classics
四书 four books
道法自然 Dao operates naturally.
海外 outside the four seas
授人以渔 teaching how to fish
载舟覆舟 make or break
上帝 supreme ruler
三才 the three elements
比德 virtue comparison
声一无听,物一无文 A single note does not compose a melodious tune, nor does a single color make a beautiful pattern.
性灵 Xingling (inner self)
浑沌 chaos
不学《诗》,无以言 You won’t be able to talk properly with others without studying the book of songs.
本色 Bense (original character)
总集 general anthology
大巧若拙 Exquisite skill looks simple and clumsy.
虚静 void and peace
和而不同 harmony but not uniformity
自强不息 striving continuously to strengthen oneself
师出有名 fighting a war with a moral justification
诗史 historical poetry
写意 freehand brushwork
经世致用 Study of ancient classics should meet present needs.
辨体 style differentiation
言不尽意 Words cannot fully express thought.
以直报怨 repaying a grudge with rectitude
海外 overseas
载舟覆舟 carry or overturn the boat
太学 imperial academy
社稷 Sheji (gods of the earth and the five grains)
否极泰来 When worse comes to the worst, things will turn for the better.
风教 moral cultivation
飘逸 natural grace
Shen (spirit / spiritual)
大道至简 great truth in simple words
厉与西施,道通为一 A scabby person and the beautiful lady Xishi are the same in the eyes of Dao.
Xiang (semblance)
正心 rectify one’s heart
虚壹而静 open-mindedness, concentration, and tranquility
江山 country or state power
大用 maximal functioning
海内 within the four seas
刚柔相济 combine toughness with softness
知先行后 first knowledge, then action
正名 rectification of names
同归殊途 rely on a common ontological entity
言尽意 Words can fully express thought.
四海之内皆兄弟 All the people within the four seas are brothers.
境界 Jingjie (visionary world)
解衣盘礴 sitting with clothes unbuttoned and legs stretching out
开物成务 understand things and succeed in one’s endeavors
风骨 Fenggu
Shi (poetry)
独化 self-driven development
与民更始 make a fresh start with the people
Yuan (origin)
the one
有教无类 education for all without discrimination
国家 family-state
温故知新 review the old and learn the new
慎思明辨 careful reflection and clear discrimination
循名责实 hold actualities according to its name
厚德载物 have ample virtue and carry all things
Li (rites / social norms)
旷达 broad-mindedness
天命之性 character endowed by heaven
过犹不及 Going too far is as bad as falling short.
大体、小体 the major organ and the minor organs
政治 decree and governance
画龙点睛 adding pupils to the eyes of a painted dragon
治大国若烹小鲜 Governing a big country is like cooking small fish.
当行 professionalism
德性之知 knowledge from one’s moral nature
尽心 exert one’s heart
活法 literary flexibility
格物致知 study things to acquire knowledge
革命 changing the mandate / revolution
诗中有画,画中有诗 painting in poetry, poetry in painting
宇宙 cosmos
吴越同舟 People of Wu and Yue are in the same boat.
安土重迁 attached to the land and unwilling to move
春秋 the spring and autumn annals
天命 mandate of heaven
诚意 be sincere in thought
寄托 entrusting
得道多助,失道寡助 A just cause enjoys abundant support while an unjust cause finds little support.
理一分殊 There is but one Li (universal principle), which exists in diverse forms.
神与物游 interaction between the mind and the subject matter
Dao (way)
境生象外 Aesthetic conception transcends concrete objects described.
being forgiveness
上帝 ruler of heaven
见贤思齐 When seeing a person of high caliber, strive to be his equal.
空灵 ethereal effect
唇亡齿寒 Once the lips are gone, the teeth will feel cold.
雅乐 fine music
尽心 mind to the utmost
三表 three standards
形而上 what is above form
意境 aesthetic conception
自然英旨 charm of spontaneity
利用厚生 make full use of resources to enrich the people
血气 vitality
妙悟 subtle insight
Ding (vessel)
形而上 the metaphysical
国家 country
礼尚往来 reciprocity as a social norm
形而下 what is under form
血气 vital force
肌理 reasoning and structure
同归殊途 arrive at the same destination via different routes
丹青 painting in colors
Ci (lyric)
见闻之知 knowledge from one’s senses
化工、画工 magically natural, overly crafted
君子 Junzi (man of virtue)
兴寄 Xingji (association and inner sustenance)
以无为本 Wu is the origin.
有德者必有言 Virtuous people are sure to produce fine writing.
楚辞 Chuci (Ode of Chu)
天人之分 distinction between man and heaven
天下兴亡,匹夫有责 The rise and fall of all under heaven is the responsibility of every individual.
阴阳 Yin and Yang
有容乃大 A broad mind achieves greatness.
紫之夺朱 purple prevailing over red
浩然之气 noble spirit
天人合一 Heaven and man are united as one.
上善若水 Great virtue is like water.
居安思危 be on alert against potential danger when living in peace
仁者爱人 The benevolent person loves others.
Qi (vessel)
江山 rivers and mountains
芙蓉出水 lotus rising out of water
鉴古知今 review the past to understand the present
兼爱 universal love
天下 Tianxia (all under heaven)
知音 resonance and empathy
白描 plain line drawing
养民 nurturing the people
旷达 unconstrained style
斯文 be cultured and refined
卦爻 trigrams and component lines
中国 Zhongguo (China)
非攻 denouncing unjust wars
九州 Nine Zhou (regions)
太虚 Taixu (great void)
Qi (vital force)
神韵 elegant subtlety
多行不义必自毙 He who repeatedly commits wrongdoing will come to no good end.
炎黄 the Fiery Emperor and the Yellow Emperor / Emperor Yan and Emperor Huang
春秋 the spring and autumn period
六义 the six basic elements
神思 imaginative contemplation
温柔敦厚 mild, gentle, sincere, and broadminded
赋比兴 narrative, analogy, and association
繁缛 overly elaborative
有无 You and Wu
知耻而后勇 having a feeling of shame gives rise to courage
日新 constant renewal
为政以德 governance based on virtue
文气 Wenqi
诗缘情 Poetry springs from emotions.
顺天应人 follow the mandate of heaven and comply with the wishes of the people
修齐治平 self-cultivation, family regulation, state Governance, bringing peace to all under heaven
霸道 despotic way
中庸 Zhongyong (golden mean)
玄览 Xuanlan ( pure-minded contemplation )
文明 Wenming (civilization)
大同 universal harmony
镕裁 refining and deleting
五行 Wuxing
人治 rule by man
格调 form and melody
缘起 dependent origination
人文化成 Ren Wen Hua Cheng
教化 shaping the mind through education
法治 rule by law
中华 Zhonghua
科举 the imperial civil examination system
公生明,廉生威 Fairness fosters discernment and integrity creates authority.
词曲 Ci (lyric) and Qu (melody)
情景 sentiment and scenery
being considerate
别材别趣 distinct subject and artistic taste
文以载道 Literature is the vehicle of ideas.
天子 son of heaven
行先知后 first action, then knowledge
一物两体 one thing in two fundamental states
兴观群怨 stimulation, contemplation, communication, and criticism
淡泊 quiet living with no worldly desire
干城 shield and fortress
Wu (thing / matter)
Xuan (mystery)
化干戈为玉帛 beat swords into plowshares
封建 feudal system
意象 Yixiang (imagery)
隐秀 latent sentiment and evident beauty
八卦 eight trigrams
错彩镂金 gilded and colored, elegant and refined
慎独 Shendu
体用 Ti and Yong
人道 way of man
取境 Qujing (conceptualize an aestheric feeling)
象外之象,景外之景 The image beyond an image, the scene beyond a scene.
革故鼎新 do away with the old and set up the new
乐而不淫,哀而不伤 express enjoyment without indulgence and express grief without excessive distress
诗言志 Poetry expresses aspirations.
化干戈为玉帛 turn war into peace
动静 movement and stillness
美刺 extolment and satirical criticism
兴象 Xingxiang (inspiring imagery)
国体 Guoti
滋味 nuanced flavor
相反相成 being both opposite and complementary
选举 select and recommend
意兴 inspirational appreciation
心知 mind cognition
四海 four seas
政治 decree and politics
干城 dukes and princes
齐物 seeing things as equal
气骨 Qigu (emotional vitality and forcefulness)
宗法 feudal clan system
形而下 the physical
辞达 expressiveness
协和万邦 coexistence of all in harmony
本末 Ben and Mo (the fundamental and the incidental)
Tian (heaven)
总集 general collection
画道 Dao of painting
良史 factual history
无为 non-action
信言不美,美言不信 Trustworthy words may not be fine-sounding; fine-sounding words may not be trustworthy.
气质之性 character endowed by Qi (vital force)
文学 literature
天道 way of heaven
民胞物与 All people are my brothers and sisters, and all things are my companions.
六经皆史 The six confucian classics are all about history.
怀远以德 embrace distant peoples by means of virtue
道济天下 support all people by upholding truth and justice
法不阿贵 The law does not favor the rich and powerful.
书院 classical academy
风雅颂 ballad, court hymn, and eulogy
雅俗 highbrow and lowbrow
Xing (nature)
发愤著书 Indignation spurs one to write great works.
良史 trustworthy historian
太极 Taiji (the supreme ultimate)
华夏 Huaxia
般若 buddhist wisdom
体性 style and temperament
良知 Liangzhi (conscience)
王道 kingly way (benevolent governance)
自然 naturalness
养气 cultivating Qi
直寻 direct quest