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外研社 | 中华思想文化术语汇总

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文化教育
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文气 Wenqi
公生明,廉生威 Fairness fosters discernment and integrity creates authority.
尽心 mind to the utmost
Ti
文以载道 Literature is the vehicle of ideas.
reflecting
兴趣 Xingqu (charm)
Yuan (origin)
体用 Ti and Yong
虚静 void and peace
霸道 despotic way
四海 four seas
封建 feudal system
养气 cultivating Qi
法不阿贵 The law does not favor the rich and powerful.
卦爻 trigrams and component lines
六经皆史 The six confucian classics are all about history.
太学 imperial academy
淡泊明志,宁静致远 Indifference to fame and fortune characterizes a high aim in life, and leading a quiet life helps on.
民惟邦本 people being the foundation of the state
别集 individual collection
Xiang (semblance)
四海之内皆兄弟 All the people within the four seas are brothers.
词曲 Ci (lyric) and Qu (melody)
华夏 Huaxia
为政以德 governance based on virtue
thinking
妙悟 subtle insight
信言不美,美言不信 Trustworthy words may not be fine-sounding; fine-sounding words may not be trustworthy.
mandate
相反相成 being both opposite and complementary
得道多助,失道寡助 A just cause enjoys abundant support while an unjust cause finds little support.
非攻 denouncing unjust wars
上帝 ruler of heaven
Shi (poetry)
求放心 search for the lost heart
诗言志 Poetry expresses aspirations.
隐秀 latent sentiment and evident beauty
国家 family-state
当行 professionalism
厚德载物 have ample virtue and carry all things
天理 natural law
缘起 dependent origination
温故知新 review the old and learn the new
四书 four books
见贤思齐 When seeing a person of high caliber, strive to be his equal.
经济 to govern and help the people
海外 outside the four seas
风雅颂 ballad, court hymn, and eulogy
lord
大巧若拙 Exquisite skill looks simple and clumsy.
being considerate
体性 style and temperament
艺术 art
诗缘情 Poetry springs from emotions.
飘逸 natural grace
旷达 unconstrained style
大道至简 great truth in simple words
Ren
三玄 three metaphysical classics
开物成务 understand things and succeed in one’s endeavors
居安思危 be on alert against potential danger when living in peace
Ding (vessel)
格物致知 study things to acquire knowledge
解衣盘礴 sitting with clothes unbuttoned and legs stretching out
选举 select and recommend
唇亡齿寒 Once the lips are gone, the teeth will feel cold.
斯文 be cultured and refined
Xuan (mystery)
sincerity
格调 form and melody
政治 decree and governance
见利思义 think of righteousness in the face of gain
社稷 Sheji (gods of the earth and the five grains)
意境 aesthetic conception
文笔 writing and writing technique
人道 way of man
learn
有无 You and Wu
赋比兴 narrative, analogy, and association
安土重迁 attached to the land and unwilling to move
sage
辞达 expressiveness
画龙点睛 rendering the final touch
气象 prevailing features
以直报怨 repaying a grudge with rectitude
大同 universal harmony
春秋 the spring and autumn period
怀远以德 embrace distant peoples by means of virtue
雅乐 fine music
海内 within the four seas
正心 rectify one’s heart
典雅 classical elegance
空灵 ethereal effect
太极 Taiji (the supreme ultimate)
诚意 be sincere in thought
见闻之知 knowledge from one’s senses
尽心 exert one’s heart
天命 mandate of heaven
日新 constant renewal
鉴古知今 review the past to understand the present
干城 shield and fortress
情景 sentiment and scenery
化干戈为玉帛 turn war into peace
形而上 what is above form
总集 general anthology
知行合一 unity of knowledge and action
天下兴亡,匹夫有责 The rise and fall of all under heaven is the responsibility of every individual.
神与物游 interaction between the mind and the subject matter
性灵 Xingling (inner self)
过犹不及 Going too far is as bad as falling short.
悲慨 melancholy and resentment
道济天下 support all people by upholding truth and justice
寄托 entrusting
美刺 extolment and satirical criticism
革故鼎新 do away with the old and set up the new
海外 overseas
国家 country
兴象 Xingxiang (inspiring imagery)
风教 moral cultivation
玄览 Xuanlan ( pure-minded contemplation )
fortress
自然 naturalness
肌理 reasoning and structure
象外之象,景外之景 The image beyond an image, the scene beyond a scene.
活法 literary flexibility
Li (rites / social norms)
变化 change
四端 four initiators
多行不义必自毙 He who repeatedly commits wrongdoing will come to no good end.
气质之性 character endowed by Qi (vital force)
rectitude
天子 son of heaven
别材别趣 distinct subject and artistic taste
mind
Shen (spirit / spiritual)
止戈为武 Stopping war is a true craft of war.
Qian
righteousness
实事求是 seek truth from facts
monarch
本色 Bense (original character)
镕裁 refining and deleting
教化 shaping the mind through education
天人合一 Heaven and man are united as one.
刚柔相济 combine toughness with softness
同归殊途 rely on a common ontological entity
形而下 what is under form
有德者必有言 Virtuous people are sure to produce fine writing.
五行 Wuxing
江山 rivers and mountains
人文化成 Ren Wen Hua Cheng
和而不同 harmony but not uniformity
比德 virtue comparison
炎黄 the Fiery Emperor and the Yellow Emperor / Emperor Yan and Emperor Huang
境界 Jingjie (visionary world)
王道 kingly way (benevolent governance)
温柔敦厚 mild, gentle, sincere, and broadminded
自强不息 striving continuously to strengthen oneself
境生象外 Aesthetic conception transcends concrete objects described.
六义 the six basic elements
旷达 broad-mindedness
形而下 the physical
化工、画工 magically natural, overly crafted
厉与西施,道通为一 A scabby person and the beautiful lady Xishi are the same in the eyes of Dao.
中庸 Zhongyong (golden mean)
科举 the imperial civil examination system
无为 non-action
授人以渔 teaching how to fish
发愤著书 Indignation spurs one to write great works.
知先行后 first knowledge, then action
理一分殊 There is but one Li (universal principle), which exists in diverse forms.
载舟覆舟 make or break
画道 Dao of painting
师出有名 fighting a war with a moral justification
法治 rule by law
正心 rectify one’s mind
阴阳 Yin and Yang
楚辞 Chuci (Ode of Chu)
江山 country or state power
King
春秋 the spring and autumn annals
三思而行 think thrice before acting
否极泰来 When worse comes to the worst, things will turn for the better.
史才三长 three strengths of a good historian
宇宙 universe
De
知耻而后勇 having a feeling of shame gives rise to courage
Qu (melody)
丹青 painting in colors
气骨 Qigu (emotional vitality and forcefulness)
取境 Qujing (conceptualize an aestheric feeling)
九州 Nine Zhou (regions)
浩然之气 noble spirit
Dao (way)
画龙点睛 adding pupils to the eyes of a painted dragon
上善若水 Great virtue is like water.
会心 heart-to-heart communication
city
京(京师) capital of a country
雅俗 highbrow and lowbrow
化干戈为玉帛 beat swords into plowshares
行先知后 first action, then knowledge
Li
养民 nurturing the people
人文 Renwen
宗法 feudal clan system
紫之夺朱 purple prevailing over red
利用厚生 make full use of resources to enrich the people
干城 dukes and princes
中华 Zhonghua
神思 imaginative contemplation
治大国若烹小鲜 Governing a big country is like cooking small fish.
不学《诗》,无以言 You won’t be able to talk properly with others without studying the book of songs.
兼爱 universal love
浑沌 chaos
刚柔 Gang and Rou
错彩镂金 gilded and colored, elegant and refined
宇宙 cosmos
言尽意 Words can fully express thought.
Wu (thing / matter)
小人 petty man
齐物 seeing things as equal
nobility
以无为本 Wu is the origin.
Ci (lyric)
文明 Wenming (civilization)
顺天应人 follow the mandate of heaven and comply with the wishes of the people
being forgiveness
文章 literary writing
动静 movement and stillness
Xing (nature)
Xu
道法自然 Dao operates naturally.
言不尽意 Words cannot fully express thought.
虚壹而静 open-mindedness, concentration, and tranquility
上帝 supreme ruler
良史 factual history
协和万邦 coexistence of all in harmony
辨体 style differentiation
良史 trustworthy historian
前事不忘,后事之师 Past experience, if not forgotten, is a guide for the future.
书院 classical academy
Qi (vital force)
同归殊途 arrive at the same destination via different routes
与民更始 make a fresh start with the people
人治 rule by man
吴越同舟 People of Wu and Yue are in the same boat.
循名责实 hold actualities according to its name
师直为壮 Troops will be powerful when fighting a just cause.
小说 fiction
修齐治平 self-cultivation, family regulation, state Governance, bringing peace to all under heaven
天人之分 distinction between man and heaven
君子 Junzi (man of virtue)
大用 maximal functioning
heart
独化 self-driven development
Tian (heaven)
意象 Yixiang (imagery)
载舟覆舟 carry or overturn the boat
神韵 elegant subtlety
慎思明辨 careful reflection and clear discrimination
心知 mind cognition
血气 vital force
一物两体 one thing in two fundamental states
血气 vitality
总集 general collection
般若 buddhist wisdom
the one
三才 the three elements
经世致用 Study of ancient classics should meet present needs.
天命之性 character endowed by heaven
政者正也 Governance means rectitude.
形而上 the metaphysical
天道 way of heaven
Qu
芙蓉出水 lotus rising out of water
song
五经 five classics
文学 literature
民胞物与 All people are my brothers and sisters, and all things are my companions.
大体、小体 the major organ and the minor organs
直寻 direct quest
知音 resonance and empathy
中国 Zhongguo (China)
意兴 inspirational appreciation
诗史 historical poetry
乐而不淫,哀而不伤 express enjoyment without indulgence and express grief without excessive distress
本末 Ben and Mo (the fundamental and the incidental)
慎独 Shendu
三表 three standards
繁缛 overly elaborative
loyalty
内美 inner beauty
名实 name and substance
metropolis
讽谕 subtle admonition
国体 Guoti
有教无类 education for all without discrimination
Qi (vessel)
sageness
无欲则刚 People with no covetous desires stand upright.
政治 decree and politics
知行 knowledge and application
淡泊 quiet living with no worldly desire
天下 Tianxia (all under heaven)
风骨 Fenggu
良知 Liangzhi (conscience)
有容乃大 A broad mind achieves greatness.
滋味 nuanced flavor
礼尚往来 reciprocity as a social norm
声一无听,物一无文 A single note does not compose a melodious tune, nor does a single color make a beautiful pattern.
Qing
白描 plain line drawing
写意 freehand brushwork
沉郁 melancholy
仁者爱人 The benevolent person loves others.
destiny
兴寄 Xingji (association and inner sustenance)
自然英旨 charm of spontaneity
德性之知 knowledge from one’s moral nature
正名 rectification of names
兴观群怨 stimulation, contemplation, communication, and criticism
革命 changing the mandate / revolution
诗中有画,画中有诗 painting in poetry, poetry in painting
Kun
八卦 eight trigrams
太虚 Taixu (great void)
逍遥 carefree