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能源生产 energy production 查看
例句: 中国是目前世界上第二位能源生产国和消费国。 China is now the world's second-largest energy producer and consumer.
发展空间 space for development 查看
例句: 能源供应持续增长,为经济社会发展提供了重要的支撑。能源消费的快速增长,为世界能源市场创造了广阔的发展空间。 The sustained growth of energy supply has provided an important support for the country's economic growth and social progress, while the rapid expansion of energy consumption has created a vast scope for the global energy market.
全球能源安全 global energy security 查看
例句: 中国已经成为世界能源市场不可或缺的重要组成部分,对维护全球能源安全,正在发挥着越来越重要的积极作用。 As an irreplaceable component of the world energy market, China plays an increasingly important role in maintaining global energy security.
现代能源产业 modern energy industry 查看
例句: 中国政府正在以科学发展观为指导,加快发展现代能源产业,坚持节约资源和保护环境的基本国策,把建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会放在工业化、现代化发展战略的突出位置,努力增强可持续发展能力,建设创新型国家,继续为世界经济发展和繁荣作出更大贡献。 Guided by the Scientific Outlook on Development, the Chinese government is accelerating its development of a modern energy industry, taking resource conservation and environmental protection as two basic state policies, giving prominence to building a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society in the course of its industrialization and modernization, striving to enhance its capability for sustainable development and making China an innovative country, so as to make greater contributions to the world's economy and prosperity.
能源产业 energy industry 查看
例句: 中国政府正在以科学发展观为指导,加快发展现代能源产业,坚持节约资源和保护环境的基本国策,把建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会放在工业化、现代化发展战略的突出位置,努力增强可持续发展能力,建设创新型国家,继续为世界经济发展和繁荣作出更大贡献。 Guided by the Scientific Outlook on Development, the Chinese government is accelerating its development of a modern energy industry, taking resource conservation and environmental protection as two basic state policies, giving prominence to building a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society in the course of its industrialization and modernization, striving to enhance its capability for sustainable development and making China an innovative country, so as to make greater contributions to the world's economy and prosperity.
可采储量 recoverable reserves 查看
例句: 其中,煤炭占主导地位。2006年,煤炭保有资源量10345亿吨,剩余探明可采储量约占世界的13%,列世界第三位。 By 2006, the reserves of coal stood at 1,034.5 billion tons, and the remaining verified reserves exploitable accounted for 13 percent of the world total, ranking China third in the world.
油页岩 oil shale 查看
例句: 已探明的石油、天然气资源储量相对不足,油页岩、煤层气等非常规化石能源储量潜力较大。 The verified reserves of oil and natural gas are relatively small, while oil shale, coal-bed gas and other unconventional fossil energy resources have huge potential for exploitation.
页岩 shale 查看
例句: 已探明的石油、天然气资源储量相对不足,油页岩、煤层气等非常规化石能源储量潜力较大。 The verified reserves of oil and natural gas are relatively small, while oil shale, coal-bed gas and other unconventional fossil energy resources have huge potential for exploitation.
可再生能源 renewable energy 查看
例句: 中国拥有较为丰富的可再生能源资源。 China also boasts fairly abundant renewable energy resources.
生物质能源 biomass energy 查看
例句: 耕地资源不足世界人均水平的30%,制约了生物质能源的开发。 The per-capita average of arable land is less than 30 percent of the world's average, which has hindered the development of biomass energy.
煤炭资源 coal resources 查看
例句: 煤炭资源主要赋存在华北、西北地区,水力资源主要分布在西南地区,石油、天然气资源主要赋存在东、中、西部地区和海域。 Coal is found mainly in the north and the northwest, hydropower in the southwest, and oil and natural gas in the eastern, central and western regions and along the coast.
勘探开发 prospecting and exploitation 查看
例句: 石油天然气资源地质条件复杂,埋藏深,勘探开发技术要求较高。 Oil and gas resources are located in areas with complex geological conditions and at great depths, so advanced and expensive prospecting and tapping techniques are required.
负荷中心 centers of consumption 查看
例句: 未开发的水力资源多集中在西南部的高山深谷,远离负荷中心,开发难度和成本较大。 Untapped hydropower resources are mostly located in the high mountains and deep valleys of the southwest, far from the centers of consumption, entailing technical difficulties and high costs.
持续快速发展 sustained and rapid growth 查看
例句: 改革开放以来,中国能源工业迅速发展,为保障国民经济持续快速发展作出了重要贡献,主要表现在: Since the reform and opening-up policies were introduced in China in the late 1970s, the country's energy industry has witnessed swift growth and made great contributions to the sustained and rapid growth of the national economy, with the following demonstrations:
供给能力 supply capacity 查看
例句: ——供给能力明显提高。 -- The energy supply capability has been remarkably enhanced.
供应体系 supply system 查看
例句: 经过几十年的努力,中国已经初步形成了煤炭为主体、电力为中心、石油天然气和可再生能源全面发展的能源供应格局,基本建立了较为完善的能源供应体系。 Thanks to the efforts made over the past few decades, China has built an energy supply framework with coal as the main energy resource and electricity as the focus, featuring an overall development of oil, gas and renewable resources. A fairly complete energy supply system is now by and large in place.
原油产量 crude oil output 查看
例句: 先后建成了大庆、胜利、辽河、塔里木等若干个大型石油生产基地,2006年原油产量1.85亿吨,实现稳步增长,列世界第五位。 Daqing, Shengli, Liaohe, Tarim and other large oilfields have been successively built as oil production bases, and the output of crude oil has increased steadily, ranking China the world's fifth-largest oil producer in 2006, with 185 million tons in that year.
能源结构 Energy Structure 查看
例句: 商品化可再生能源量在一次能源结构中的比例逐步提高。 The proportion of commercial renewable energy in the structure of primary energy keeps rising.
能源综合运输体系 comprehensive energy transportation system 查看
例句: 能源综合运输体系发展较快,运输能力显著增强,建设了西煤东运铁路专线及港口码头,形成了北油南运管网,建成了西气东输大干线,实现了西电东送和区域电网互联。 A comprehensive energy transportation system has been developed quickly, with the transport capacity notably improved. Special railways transporting coal from the west to the east and relevant coal ports, and pipelines transporting oil from the north to the south and conveying natural gas from the west to the east have all been built. Now, the power generated in the west can be carried to the east, and the regional power grids have all been connected up.
区域电网 regional power grids 查看
例句: 能源综合运输体系发展较快,运输能力显著增强,建设了西煤东运铁路专线及港口码头,形成了北油南运管网,建成了西气东输大干线,实现了西电东送和区域电网互联。 A comprehensive energy transportation system has been developed quickly, with the transport capacity notably improved. Special railways transporting coal from the west to the east and relevant coal ports, and pipelines transporting oil from the north to the south and conveying natural gas from the west to the east have all been built. Now, the power generated in the west can be carried to the east, and the regional power grids have all been connected up.
能源节约 energy saving 查看
例句: ——能源节约效果显著。 -- Energy-saving effects are conspicuous.
能源消耗 energy consumption 查看
例句: 按2005年不变价格,万元国内生产总值能源消耗由1980年的3.39吨标准煤下降到2006年的1.21吨标准煤,年均节能率3.9%,扭转了近年来单位国内生产总值能源消耗上升的势头。 Calculated at 2005 constant prices, the energy consumption for every 10,000 yuan of GDP dropped from 3.39 tons of standard coal in 1980 to 1.21 tons in 2006, making the annual energy-saving rate 3.9 percent, putting an end to the rising trend of per-unit GDP energy consumption. for every 10,000 yuan of GDP dropped from 3.39 tons of standard coal in 1980 to 1.21 tons in 2006, making the annual energy-saving rate 3.9 percent, putting an end to the rising trend of per-unit GDP energy consumption.
综合能耗 comprehensive energy consumption 查看
例句: 单位产品能耗明显下降,其中钢、水泥、大型合成氨等产品的综合能耗及供电煤耗与国际先进水平的差距不断缩小。 Per-unit product energy consumption has dropped noticeably, and the gaps between the overall energy consumption, the net energy consumption rate of electricity generation for steel and cement production as well as synthetic ammonia produced by plants with an annual output of 300,000 tons or more and the international levels are narrowing.
石油和天然气 oil and gas 查看
例句: 中国高度重视优化能源消费结构,煤炭在一次能源消费中的比重由1980年的72.2%下降到2006年的69.4%,其他能源比重由27.8%上升到30.6%。其中可再生能源和核电比重由4.0%提高到7.2%,石油和天然气有所增长。 China pays great attention to improving its energy consumption structure. The proportion of coal in primary energy consumption decreased from 72.2 percent in 1980 to 69.4 percent in 2006, and that of other forms of energy rose from 27.8 percent to 30.6 percent, with that of renewable energy and nuclear power rising from 4.0 percent to 7.2 percent. The shares of oil and gas have increased.
清洁能源 clean energy 查看
例句: 终端能源消费结构优化趋势明显,煤炭能源转化为电能的比重由20.7%提高到49.6%,商品能源和清洁能源在居民生活用能中的比重明显提高。 The end-use energy consumption structure is noticeably optimized, and the proportion of coal converted into power increased from 20.7 percent to 49.6 percent. More commercial energy and clean energy are being used in people's daily life.
科技水平 scientific and technological level 查看
例句: ——科技水平迅速提高。 -- The scientific and technological level has been rapidly enhanced.
电力工业 power industry 查看
例句: 在电力工业方面,先进发电技术和大容量高参数机组得到普遍应用,水电站设计、工程技术和设备制造等技术达到世界先进水平,核电初步具备百万千瓦级压水堆自主设计和工程建设能力,高温气冷堆、快中子增殖堆技术研发取得重大突破。 In the power industry, advanced generating technology and units with large capacity and high parameters are widely used, and the designing, engineering and equipment manufacturing of hydraulic power plants have reached the world's advanced level. China is now able to independently design and build million-kw pressurized water reactors, and has made outstanding breakthroughs in the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and fast-neutron-breeder reactors.
先进发电技术 advanced level 查看
例句: 在电力工业方面,先进发电技术和大容量高参数机组得到普遍应用,水电站设计、工程技术和设备制造等技术达到世界先进水平,核电初步具备百万千瓦级压水堆自主设计和工程建设能力,高温气冷堆、快中子增殖堆技术研发取得重大突破。 In the power industry, advanced generating technology and units with large capacity and high parameters are widely used, and the designing, engineering and equipment manufacturing of hydraulic power plants have reached the world's advanced level. China is now able to independently design and build million-kw pressurized water reactors, and has made outstanding breakthroughs in the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and fast-neutron-breeder reactors.
工程技术 engineering technology 查看
例句: 在电力工业方面,先进发电技术和大容量高参数机组得到普遍应用,水电站设计、工程技术和设备制造等技术达到世界先进水平,核电初步具备百万千瓦级压水堆自主设计和工程建设能力,高温气冷堆、快中子增殖堆技术研发取得重大突破。 In the power industry, advanced generating technology and units with large capacity and high parameters are widely used, and the designing, engineering and equipment manufacturing of hydraulic power plants have reached the world's advanced level. China is now able to independently design and build million-kw pressurized water reactors, and has made outstanding breakthroughs in the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and fast-neutron-breeder reactors.
设备制造 equipment manufacturing 查看
例句: 在电力工业方面,先进发电技术和大容量高参数机组得到普遍应用,水电站设计、工程技术和设备制造等技术达到世界先进水平,核电初步具备百万千瓦级压水堆自主设计和工程建设能力,高温气冷堆、快中子增殖堆技术研发取得重大突破。 In the power industry, advanced generating technology and units with large capacity and high parameters are widely used, and the designing, engineering and equipment manufacturing of hydraulic power plants have reached the world's advanced level. China is now able to independently design and build million-kw pressurized water reactors, and has made outstanding breakthroughs in the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and fast-neutron-breeder reactors.
压水堆 pressurized water reactor 查看
例句: 在电力工业方面,先进发电技术和大容量高参数机组得到普遍应用,水电站设计、工程技术和设备制造等技术达到世界先进水平,核电初步具备百万千瓦级压水堆自主设计和工程建设能力,高温气冷堆、快中子增殖堆技术研发取得重大突破。 In the power industry, advanced generating technology and units with large capacity and high parameters are widely used, and the designing, engineering and equipment manufacturing of hydraulic power plants have reached the world's advanced level. China is now able to independently design and build million-kw pressurized water reactors, and has made outstanding breakthroughs in the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and fast-neutron-breeder reactors.
自主设计 independently design 查看
例句: 在电力工业方面,先进发电技术和大容量高参数机组得到普遍应用,水电站设计、工程技术和设备制造等技术达到世界先进水平,核电初步具备百万千瓦级压水堆自主设计和工程建设能力,高温气冷堆、快中子增殖堆技术研发取得重大突破。 In the power industry, advanced generating technology and units with large capacity and high parameters are widely used, and the designing, engineering and equipment manufacturing of hydraulic power plants have reached the world's advanced level. China is now able to independently design and build million-kw pressurized water reactors, and has made outstanding breakthroughs in the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and fast-neutron-breeder reactors.
快中子 fast-neutron-breeder reactors 查看
例句: 在电力工业方面,先进发电技术和大容量高参数机组得到普遍应用,水电站设计、工程技术和设备制造等技术达到世界先进水平,核电初步具备百万千瓦级压水堆自主设计和工程建设能力,高温气冷堆、快中子增殖堆技术研发取得重大突破。 In the power industry, advanced generating technology and units with large capacity and high parameters are widely used, and the designing, engineering and equipment manufacturing of hydraulic power plants have reached the world's advanced level. China is now able to independently design and build million-kw pressurized water reactors, and has made outstanding breakthroughs in the development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and fast-neutron-breeder reactors.
烟气脱硫 flue gas desulphurization 查看
例句: 烟气脱硫等污染治理、可再生能源开发利用技术迅速提高。 The technologies to deal with pollution such as flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and renewable energy development and utilization are quickly being improved.
脱硫 desulfurizing 查看
例句: 烟气脱硫等污染治理、可再生能源开发利用技术迅速提高。 The technologies to deal with pollution such as flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and renewable energy development and utilization are quickly being improved.
能源开发利用 energy development and utilization 查看
例句: 烟气脱硫等污染治理、可再生能源开发利用技术迅速提高。 The technologies to deal with pollution such as flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and renewable energy development and utilization are quickly being improved.
能源开发 energy development 查看
例句: 烟气脱硫等污染治理、可再生能源开发利用技术迅速提高。 The technologies to deal with pollution such as flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and renewable energy development and utilization are quickly being improved.
示范工程 demonstration project 查看
例句: 正负500千伏直流和750千伏交流输电示范工程相继建成投运,正负800千伏直流、1000千伏交流特高压输电试验示范工程开始启动。 Models of ?à500 kv DC and 750 kv AC electricity transmission projects have been completed and put into operation, and pilot ?à800 kv DC and 1,000 kv AC extra-high-voltage electricity transmission projects are under way.
能源政策 Energy Policy 查看
例句: 中国的能源政策也把减少和有效治理能源开发利用过程中引起的环境破坏、环境污染作为其主要内容。 China's energy policies give priority to the reduction and rehabilitation of environmental damage and pollution resulting from energy development and utilization.
环境破坏 environmental damage 查看
例句: 中国的能源政策也把减少和有效治理能源开发利用过程中引起的环境破坏、环境污染作为其主要内容。 China's energy policies give priority to the reduction and rehabilitation of environmental damage and pollution resulting from energy development and utilization.
电机组 power units 查看
例句: 2006年,全国建成并投入运行的脱硫火电机组装机容量达1.04亿千瓦,超过前10年的总和,装备脱硫设施的火电机组占火电总装机的比例由2000年的2%提高到30%。 The installation capacity of thermal power units with FGD built and put into operation in 2006 totaled 104 million kw, exceeding the combined total of the previous 10 years. Such thermal power units accounted for only 2 percent of all thermal power units in 2000, but the proportion had risen to 30 percent by 2006. with FGD built and put into operation in 2006 totaled 104 million kw, exceeding the combined total of the previous 10 years. Such thermal power units accounted for only 2 percent of all thermal power units in 2000, but the proportion had risen to 30 percent by 2006. accounted for only 2 percent of all thermal power units in 2000, but the proportion had risen to 30 percent by 2006.
现代企业制度 modern enterprise system 查看
例句: 能源企业重组取得突破,现代企业制度基本建立。 Breakthroughs have been made in restructuring energy enterprises, and a modern enterprise system has by and large taken shape.
内外贸 domestic and international trades 查看
例句: 石油天然气工业基本实现了上下游、内外贸一体化。 In the oil and gas industry, the upstream and downstream sectors have been integrated, so have the domestic and international trades.
能源价格 energy price 查看
例句: 能源价格改革不断深化,价格机制不断完善。 Energy pricing reform has been constantly deepened, and the pricing mechanism has been improved continuously.
供应能力 supply capacity 查看
例句: 中国优质能源资源相对不足,制约了供应能力的提高;能源资源分布不均,也增加了持续稳定供应的难度;经济增长方式粗放、能源结构不合理、能源技术装备水平低和管理水平相对落后,导致单位国内生产总值能耗和主要耗能产品能耗高于主要能源消费国家平均水平,进一步加剧了能源供需矛盾。 China's relative dearth of high-quality energy resources hinders its supply capability; its imbalanced distribution makes it difficult to secure a continued and steady supply; and the extensive pattern of economic growth, irrational energy structure, unsatisfactory energy technology and relatively poor management have resulted in higher energy consumption per-unit GDP and for the major energy-consuming products than the average level of major energy-consuming countries, thus further intensifying the energy supply-demand contradiction.
单位国内生产总值能耗 energy consumption per unit of GDP 查看
例句: 中国优质能源资源相对不足,制约了供应能力的提高;能源资源分布不均,也增加了持续稳定供应的难度;经济增长方式粗放、能源结构不合理、能源技术装备水平低和管理水平相对落后,导致单位国内生产总值能耗和主要耗能产品能耗高于主要能源消费国家平均水平,进一步加剧了能源供需矛盾。 China's relative dearth of high-quality energy resources hinders its supply capability; its imbalanced distribution makes it difficult to secure a continued and steady supply; and the extensive pattern of economic growth, irrational energy structure, unsatisfactory energy technology and relatively poor management have resulted in higher energy consumption per-unit GDP and for the major energy-consuming products than the average level of major energy-consuming countries, thus further intensifying the energy supply-demand contradiction.
温室气体排放 greenhouse gas emissions 查看
例句: 煤炭消费是造成煤烟型大气污染的主要原因,也是温室气体排放的主要来源。 Coal consumption has been the main cause of smoke pollution in China, as well as the main source of greenhouse gas.
气体排放 gas emissions 查看
例句: 煤炭消费是造成煤烟型大气污染的主要原因,也是温室气体排放的主要来源。 Coal consumption has been the main cause of smoke pollution in China, as well as the main source of greenhouse gas.
环境成本 environmental cost 查看
例句: 中国能源市场体系有待完善,能源价格机制未能完全反映资源稀缺程度、供求关系和环境成本。 China's energy market system is yet to be completed, as the energy pricing mechanism fails to fully reflect the scarcity of resources, its supply and demand, and the environmental cost.
煤矿生产安全 coal production safety 查看
例句: 煤矿生产安全欠账比较多,电网结构不够合理,石油储备能力不足,有效应对能源供应中断和重大突发事件的预警应急体系有待进一步完善和加强。 Coal production safety is far from satisfactory, the structure of power grids is not rational, the oil reserves are not sufficient, and an effective emergency pre-warning system is yet to be improved and consolidated to deal with energy supply breakdowns and other major unexpected emergencies.
生产安全 safe production 查看
例句: 煤矿生产安全欠账比较多,电网结构不够合理,石油储备能力不足,有效应对能源供应中断和重大突发事件的预警应急体系有待进一步完善和加强。 Coal production safety is far from satisfactory, the structure of power grids is not rational, the oil reserves are not sufficient, and an effective emergency pre-warning system is yet to be improved and consolidated to deal with energy supply breakdowns and other major unexpected emergencies.
石油储备能力 the oil reserves 查看
例句: 煤矿生产安全欠账比较多,电网结构不够合理,石油储备能力不足,有效应对能源供应中断和重大突发事件的预警应急体系有待进一步完善和加强。 Coal production safety is far from satisfactory, the structure of power grids is not rational, the oil reserves are not sufficient, and an effective emergency pre-warning system is yet to be improved and consolidated to deal with energy supply breakdowns and other major unexpected emergencies.
石油储备 petroleum reserve 查看
例句: 煤矿生产安全欠账比较多,电网结构不够合理,石油储备能力不足,有效应对能源供应中断和重大突发事件的预警应急体系有待进一步完善和加强。 Coal production safety is far from satisfactory, the structure of power grids is not rational, the oil reserves are not sufficient, and an effective emergency pre-warning system is yet to be improved and consolidated to deal with energy supply breakdowns and other major unexpected emergencies.
能源供应中断 energy supply breakdowns 查看
例句: 煤矿生产安全欠账比较多,电网结构不够合理,石油储备能力不足,有效应对能源供应中断和重大突发事件的预警应急体系有待进一步完善和加强。 Coal production safety is far from satisfactory, the structure of power grids is not rational, the oil reserves are not sufficient, and an effective emergency pre-warning system is yet to be improved and consolidated to deal with energy supply breakdowns and other major unexpected emergencies.
应急体系 emergency response system 查看
例句: 煤矿生产安全欠账比较多,电网结构不够合理,石油储备能力不足,有效应对能源供应中断和重大突发事件的预警应急体系有待进一步完善和加强。 Coal production safety is far from satisfactory, the structure of power grids is not rational, the oil reserves are not sufficient, and an effective emergency pre-warning system is yet to be improved and consolidated to deal with energy supply breakdowns and other major unexpected emergencies.
资源消耗 resource consumption 查看
例句: 坚持走科技含量高、资源消耗低、环境污染少、经济效益好、安全有保障的能源发展道路,最大程度地实现能源的全面、协调和可持续发展。 It strives for high scientific and technological content, low resource consumption, minimum of environmental pollution, good economic returns, and guaranteed safety in energy development, so as to realize the coordinated and sustained development of all energy resources to the fullest possible extent.
调整产业结构 adjustment of the industrial structure 查看
例句: 中国把资源节约作为基本国策,坚持能源开发与节约并举、节约优先,积极转变经济发展方式,调整产业结构,鼓励节能技术研发,普及节能产品,提高能源管理水平,完善节能法规和标准,不断提高能源效率。 China has made resource-conservation a basic state policy, and stresses both developing and saving, with priority given to saving. For this, it is actively changing the pattern of economic growth, adjusting the industrial structure, encouraging research and development of energy-saving technologies, popularizing energy-saving products, improving energy management expertise, improving energy-saving legislation and standards, and enhancing energy efficiency.
能源管理 Energy Management 查看
例句: 中国把资源节约作为基本国策,坚持能源开发与节约并举、节约优先,积极转变经济发展方式,调整产业结构,鼓励节能技术研发,普及节能产品,提高能源管理水平,完善节能法规和标准,不断提高能源效率。 China has made resource-conservation a basic state policy, and stresses both developing and saving, with priority given to saving. For this, it is actively changing the pattern of economic growth, adjusting the industrial structure, encouraging research and development of energy-saving technologies, popularizing energy-saving products, improving energy management expertise, improving energy-saving legislation and standards, and enhancing energy efficiency.
自主创新 independent innovation 查看
例句: 中国充分依靠能源科技进步,增强自主创新能力,提升引进技术消化吸收和再创新能力,突破能源发展的技术瓶颈,提高关键技术和重大装备制造水平,开创能源开发利用新途径,增强发展后劲。 China fully relies on science and technology to enhance its ability for independent innovation and its ability to digest and improve imported technologies, tackle technological bottlenecks in energy development, improve key technologies and the manufacturing level of key equipment, seek new ways for energy development and utilization, and redouble the strength for further development.
关键技术 key technologies 查看
例句: 中国充分依靠能源科技进步,增强自主创新能力,提升引进技术消化吸收和再创新能力,突破能源发展的技术瓶颈,提高关键技术和重大装备制造水平,开创能源开发利用新途径,增强发展后劲。 China fully relies on science and technology to enhance its ability for independent innovation and its ability to digest and improve imported technologies, tackle technological bottlenecks in energy development, improve key technologies and the manufacturing level of key equipment, seek new ways for energy development and utilization, and redouble the strength for further development.
装备制造 equipment manufacturing 查看
例句: 中国充分依靠能源科技进步,增强自主创新能力,提升引进技术消化吸收和再创新能力,突破能源发展的技术瓶颈,提高关键技术和重大装备制造水平,开创能源开发利用新途径,增强发展后劲。 China fully relies on science and technology to enhance its ability for independent innovation and its ability to digest and improve imported technologies, tackle technological bottlenecks in energy development, improve key technologies and the manufacturing level of key equipment, seek new ways for energy development and utilization, and redouble the strength for further development.
污染物排放 emissions of pollutants 查看
例句: 《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十一个五年规划纲要》明确提出, 到2010年,单位国内生产总值能源消耗比2005年降低20%左右,主要污染物排放总量减少10%。 The Outline of the 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China projects that the per-unit GDP energy consumption by 2010 will have decreased by 20 percent compared to 2005, and the total amount of major pollutants discharged will have been reduced by 10 percent.
发展目标 Development Goals 查看
例句: 为实现经济社会发展目标,中国能源发展“十一五”(2006—2010年)目标是:到“十一五”末期,能源供应基本满足国民经济和社会发展需求,能源节约取得明显成效,能源效率得到明显提高,结构进一步优化,技术取得实质进步,经济效益和市场竞争力显著提高,与社会主义市场经济体制相适应的能源宏观调控、市场监管、法律法规、预警应急体系和机制得到逐步完善,能源与经济、社会、环境协调发展。 To realize the country's economic and social development goals, the energy industry has set the following targets in the 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010): By 2010 the energy supply will basically meet the demands of national economic and social development; and obvious progress will have been made in energy conservation; energy efficiency will have been noticeably enhanced and the energy structure optimized; technological progress, economic benefits and market competitiveness will have been greatly increased; and energy-related macro-control, market regulation, legislation and emergency pre-warning system and mechanism compatible with the socialist market economy will all have been improved. The result will be that the coordinated development will have been achieved between energy production, the economy, the society and the environment.
市场竞争力 market competitiveness 查看
例句: 为实现经济社会发展目标,中国能源发展“十一五”(2006—2010年)目标是:到“十一五”末期,能源供应基本满足国民经济和社会发展需求,能源节约取得明显成效,能源效率得到明显提高,结构进一步优化,技术取得实质进步,经济效益和市场竞争力显著提高,与社会主义市场经济体制相适应的能源宏观调控、市场监管、法律法规、预警应急体系和机制得到逐步完善,能源与经济、社会、环境协调发展。 To realize the country's economic and social development goals, the energy industry has set the following targets in the 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010): By 2010 the energy supply will basically meet the demands of national economic and social development; and obvious progress will have been made in energy conservation; energy efficiency will have been noticeably enhanced and the energy structure optimized; technological progress, economic benefits and market competitiveness will have been greatly increased; and energy-related macro-control, market regulation, legislation and emergency pre-warning system and mechanism compatible with the socialist market economy will all have been improved. The result will be that the coordinated development will have been achieved between energy production, the economy, the society and the environment.
社会主义市场经济 the socialist market economy 查看
例句: 为实现经济社会发展目标,中国能源发展“十一五”(2006—2010年)目标是:到“十一五”末期,能源供应基本满足国民经济和社会发展需求,能源节约取得明显成效,能源效率得到明显提高,结构进一步优化,技术取得实质进步,经济效益和市场竞争力显著提高,与社会主义市场经济体制相适应的能源宏观调控、市场监管、法律法规、预警应急体系和机制得到逐步完善,能源与经济、社会、环境协调发展。 To realize the country's economic and social development goals, the energy industry has set the following targets in the 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010): By 2010 the energy supply will basically meet the demands of national economic and social development; and obvious progress will have been made in energy conservation; energy efficiency will have been noticeably enhanced and the energy structure optimized; technological progress, economic benefits and market competitiveness will have been greatly increased; and energy-related macro-control, market regulation, legislation and emergency pre-warning system and mechanism compatible with the socialist market economy will all have been improved. The result will be that the coordinated development will have been achieved between energy production, the economy, the society and the environment.
市场监管 market regulation 查看
例句: 为实现经济社会发展目标,中国能源发展“十一五”(2006—2010年)目标是:到“十一五”末期,能源供应基本满足国民经济和社会发展需求,能源节约取得明显成效,能源效率得到明显提高,结构进一步优化,技术取得实质进步,经济效益和市场竞争力显著提高,与社会主义市场经济体制相适应的能源宏观调控、市场监管、法律法规、预警应急体系和机制得到逐步完善,能源与经济、社会、环境协调发展。 To realize the country's economic and social development goals, the energy industry has set the following targets in the 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010): By 2010 the energy supply will basically meet the demands of national economic and social development; and obvious progress will have been made in energy conservation; energy efficiency will have been noticeably enhanced and the energy structure optimized; technological progress, economic benefits and market competitiveness will have been greatly increased; and energy-related macro-control, market regulation, legislation and emergency pre-warning system and mechanism compatible with the socialist market economy will all have been improved. The result will be that the coordinated development will have been achieved between energy production, the economy, the society and the environment.
全面推进能源 Promotion of Energy 查看
例句: 三、全面推进能源节约 III. All-round Promotion of Energy Conservation
节能减排 saving energy and reducing emissions 查看
例句: 在推进节能减排工作中,做到“六个依靠”:依靠结构调整,这是节能减排的根本途径;依靠科技进步,这是节能减排的关键所在;依靠加强管理,这是节能减排的重要措施;依靠强化法制,这是节能减排的重要保障;依靠深化改革,这是节能减排的内在动力;依靠全民参与,这是节能减排的社会基础。 While advancing the work of saving energy and reducing emissions, the Chinese government depends on structural adjustment as the fundamental approach, on scientific and technological advances as the key, on improved administration as a crucial measure, on the strengthening of law enforcement as an important guarantee, on the deepening of the reform as an internal motive force, and on public participation as the social foundation.
指标体系 index system 查看
例句: 中国正在完善国内生产总值和能源消耗指标体系,将能源消耗纳入各地经济社会发展综合评价和年度考核,实行单位国内生产总值能耗指标公报制度,实施节能目标责任制和问责制,构建节能型产业体系,促进经济发展方式的根本转变。 China is perfecting the index system of energy consumption per-unit GDP. It will incorporate energy consumption into the overall evaluation of economic and social development and the annual performance evaluation of regional governments. It will adopt an announcement system for this index, implement a target responsibility and accountability system for energy conservation and build an energy-conserving industrial system to effect the fundamental transformation of the country's pattern of economic development.
综合评价 overall evaluation 查看
例句: 中国正在完善国内生产总值和能源消耗指标体系,将能源消耗纳入各地经济社会发展综合评价和年度考核,实行单位国内生产总值能耗指标公报制度,实施节能目标责任制和问责制,构建节能型产业体系,促进经济发展方式的根本转变。 China is perfecting the index system of energy consumption per-unit GDP. It will incorporate energy consumption into the overall evaluation of economic and social development and the annual performance evaluation of regional governments. It will adopt an announcement system for this index, implement a target responsibility and accountability system for energy conservation and build an energy-conserving industrial system to effect the fundamental transformation of the country's pattern of economic development.
消费模式 consumption mode 查看
例句: 中国坚持以提高能源效率为核心,以转变经济发展方式、调整经济结构、加快技术进步为根本,构建能源资源节约型的产业结构、发展方式和消费模式。 China will establish an energy- and resource-saving industrial structure, development pattern and consumption mode by taking improvement of energy efficiency as the core, and transforming the mode of economic development, adjusting the economic structure and accelerating technological advance as the foundation.
价格形成机制 pricing mechanism 查看
例句: 完善节能技术推广机制,鼓励节能技术和产品的研发。深化能源体制改革,完善能源价格形成机制,充分发挥财政税收等经济政策对节能的推动作用。 It will deepen the reform of the energy system, improve the energy pricing mechanism and give full play to economic policies, including fiscal and taxation ones, in promoting energy conservation.
财政税收 fiscal and taxation ones 查看
例句: 完善节能技术推广机制,鼓励节能技术和产品的研发。深化能源体制改革,完善能源价格形成机制,充分发挥财政税收等经济政策对节能的推动作用。 It will deepen the reform of the energy system, improve the energy pricing mechanism and give full play to economic policies, including fiscal and taxation ones, in promoting energy conservation.
优化升级 optimization and upgrading 查看
例句: 中国加快产业结构优化升级,大力发展高新技术产业和服务业,严格限制高耗能、高耗材、高耗水产业发展,淘汰落后产能,促进经济发展方式的根本转变,加快构建节能型产业体系。 China will accelerate the optimization and upgrading of its industrial structure, make energetic efforts to develop high- and new-tech industries and the service trades, set strict limits on the development of high energy-, material- and water-consuming industries, and eliminate industries with backward productivity, so as to fundamentally change the pattern of economic development and put in place an energy-saving industrial system on an early date.
落后产能 outdated capacity 查看
例句: 中国加快产业结构优化升级,大力发展高新技术产业和服务业,严格限制高耗能、高耗材、高耗水产业发展,淘汰落后产能,促进经济发展方式的根本转变,加快构建节能型产业体系。 China will accelerate the optimization and upgrading of its industrial structure, make energetic efforts to develop high- and new-tech industries and the service trades, set strict limits on the development of high energy-, material- and water-consuming industries, and eliminate industries with backward productivity, so as to fundamentally change the pattern of economic development and put in place an energy-saving industrial system on an early date.
新型工业化 new road to industrialization 查看
例句: 中国坚持走科技含量高、经济效益好、资源消耗低、环境污染少、人力资源得到充分发挥的新型工业化道路,加快发展高技术产业,运用高新技术和先进适用技术改造传统产业,提升工业整体水平。 The country is determined to take a new road to industrialization characterized by high scientific and technological content, good economic returns, low resource consumption, minimum of environmental pollution, and full use of human resources. To achieve this, China will accelerate the development of high-tech industries and transform traditional industries with high- and new-technologies, as well as advanced and applicable ones, and in turn upgrade the overall industrial standard.
适用技术 applicable technologies 查看
例句: 中国坚持走科技含量高、经济效益好、资源消耗低、环境污染少、人力资源得到充分发挥的新型工业化道路,加快发展高技术产业,运用高新技术和先进适用技术改造传统产业,提升工业整体水平。 The country is determined to take a new road to industrialization characterized by high scientific and technological content, good economic returns, low resource consumption, minimum of environmental pollution, and full use of human resources. To achieve this, China will accelerate the development of high-tech industries and transform traditional industries with high- and new-technologies, as well as advanced and applicable ones, and in turn upgrade the overall industrial standard.
传统产业 traditional industries 查看
例句: 中国坚持走科技含量高、经济效益好、资源消耗低、环境污染少、人力资源得到充分发挥的新型工业化道路,加快发展高技术产业,运用高新技术和先进适用技术改造传统产业,提升工业整体水平。 The country is determined to take a new road to industrialization characterized by high scientific and technological content, good economic returns, low resource consumption, minimum of environmental pollution, and full use of human resources. To achieve this, China will accelerate the development of high-tech industries and transform traditional industries with high- and new-technologies, as well as advanced and applicable ones, and in turn upgrade the overall industrial standard.
重点加强 focus on tightening 查看
例句: 重点加强钢铁、有色金属、煤炭、电力、石油石化、化工、建材等高耗能行业节能降耗。 Industries with high energy consumption, such as steel, nonferrous metals, coal, electricity, petroleum and petrochemicals, chemical engineering and building materials, will be the target sectors for saving energy and reducing energy consumption.
节能管理 conservation management 查看
例句: 中国实施千家企业节能行动,重点加强年耗能万吨标准煤以上的工业企业节能管理。 The Chinese government has launched an energy-conservation drive among 1,000 enterprises, with the focus on tightening control over those consuming 10,000 tons of standard coal or more each year.
示范项目 demonstration project 查看
例句: 支持一批节能降耗的重大及示范项目,带动工业提高能效水平。 It will support a group of key and demonstration projects aiming to conserve energy and cut consumption so as to rally industries to enhance the ir energy-saving level.
市场准入制度 market access system 查看
例句: 进一步完善工业行业能效标准和规范,强制淘汰落后的高耗能产品,完善能效市场准入制度。 It will continue to raise the standards for energy efficiency of industry, eliminate backward and high energy-consuming products, and perfect the market access system.
新型墙体材料 new walling material 查看
例句: 中国大力发展节能省地型建筑,积极推进既有建筑节能改造,广泛使用新型墙体材料。 China will make vigorous efforts to construct energy- and land-saving buildings, actively promote the energy-saving renovation of existing buildings, and extensively use new walling materials.
石油工程 oil project 查看
例句: 实施节约和替代石油工程,科学发展替代燃料。 China will continue to implement petroleum substitution and develop substitute fuels in a scientific way.
工业锅 coal-fueled industrial boilers 查看
例句: 加快燃煤工业锅(窑)炉改造、区域热电联产和余热余压利用,提高能源利用效率。 It will accelerate the innovation of coal-fueled industrial boilers (kilns), regional simultaneous generation of heat and power and surplus heat and pressure utilization, and improve the efficiency of energy utilization.
能源利用效率 efficiency of energy 查看
例句: 加快燃煤工业锅(窑)炉改造、区域热电联产和余热余压利用,提高能源利用效率。 It will accelerate the innovation of coal-fueled industrial boilers (kilns), regional simultaneous generation of heat and power and surplus heat and pressure utilization, and improve the efficiency of energy utilization.
绿色照明 green lighting 查看
例句: 实施绿色照明工程,加快推广高效电器应用。 It will carry out the Green Lighting Project, and spread more rapidly high-performance electrical appliances.
服务体系 service system 查看
例句: 加快节能监测和技术服务体系建设,强化节能监测,创新服务平台。 It will put in place at an early date the system of energy-conservation monitoring and technological support, strengthening energy-conservation monitoring and establishing new energy services platforms.
固定资产投资项目 fixed assets investment projects 查看
例句: 实施固定资产投资项目节能评估和审核制度,严把能耗增长的源头。 It will put in force an evaluation and examination system in respect of energy conservation in fixed assets investment projects and strictly control increase of energy consumption at the roots.
固定资产投资 fixed assets investment 查看
例句: 实施固定资产投资项目节能评估和审核制度,严把能耗增长的源头。 It will put in force an evaluation and examination system in respect of energy conservation in fixed assets investment projects and strictly control increase of energy consumption at the roots.
审核制度 examination system 查看
例句: 实施固定资产投资项目节能评估和审核制度,严把能耗增长的源头。 It will put in force an evaluation and examination system in respect of energy conservation in fixed assets investment projects and strictly control increase of energy consumption at the roots.
能效标识 energy efficiency label 查看
例句: 建立企业节能新机制,实施能效标识管理,推进合同能源管理和节能自愿协议。 It will set up a new energy-conservation mechanism for enterprises, adopt an energy efficiency labeling mechanism, and promote contract-based energy management and voluntary energy-conservation agreements.
节能自愿协议 voluntary energy-conservation agreements 查看
例句: 建立企业节能新机制,实施能效标识管理,推进合同能源管理和节能自愿协议。 It will set up a new energy-conservation mechanism for enterprises, adopt an energy efficiency labeling mechanism, and promote contract-based energy management and voluntary energy-conservation agreements.
加强节能管理 energy-conservation managerial personnel 查看
例句: 加强节能管理队伍建设,加大执法监督检查力度。 It will improve the overall quality of energy-conservation managerial personnel, and step up efforts in law enforcement, supervision and examination.
监督检查 supervision and inspection 查看
例句: 加强节能管理队伍建设,加大执法监督检查力度。 It will improve the overall quality of energy-conservation managerial personnel, and step up efforts in law enforcement, supervision and examination.
节能知识 popularize relevant knowledge 查看
例句: 把节约能源纳入基础教育、职业教育、高等教育和技术培训体系,利用新闻出版、广播影视等媒体,大力宣传和普及节能知识。 It will incorporate energy conservation into the system of elementary education, vocational education, higher education and technical training, and publicize and popularize relevant knowledge by means of mass media.
能源供应能力 its energy supply capacity 查看
例句: 中国提高能源供应能力的措施是: To increase its energy supply capacity, China will take the following measures:
煤矿安全 ensure coal mining safety 查看
例句: 煤炭是中国的基础能源,增加供给能力、优化能源结构、保障煤矿安全、减少环境污染、提高资源利用效率、构建新型煤炭工业体系,是保障国民经济发展的迫切需要。 Coal is a basic energy in China, and it is an urgent need to increase the supply capacity, optimize the energy mix, ensure coal mining safety, reduce environmental pollution, increase resource utilization efficiency and build a new coal industry system, so as to guarantee the development of the national economy.
资源利用效率 increase resource utilization efficiency 查看
例句: 煤炭是中国的基础能源,增加供给能力、优化能源结构、保障煤矿安全、减少环境污染、提高资源利用效率、构建新型煤炭工业体系,是保障国民经济发展的迫切需要。 Coal is a basic energy in China, and it is an urgent need to increase the supply capacity, optimize the energy mix, ensure coal mining safety, reduce environmental pollution, increase resource utilization efficiency and build a new coal industry system, so as to guarantee the development of the national economy.
产业链 industrial chain 查看
例句: 促进与相关产业协调发展,鼓励实行煤电联营或煤电运一体化经营,延伸煤炭产业链。 It will promote the coordinated development of related industries, and encourage coal-electricity joint operation or coal-electricity-transport integrated management, so as to extend the coal industry chain.
洁净煤 clean coal 查看
例句: 提高煤矿机械化水平和采煤综合机械化程度,推进煤炭的清洁生产和利用,鼓励洁净煤技术的研发和推广,加快替代液体燃料研究和示范。 It will further mechanize coalmines and enhance overall mechanization in coal mining, promote the clean production and utilization of coal, encourage R&D and spreading of clean coal technologies, and quicken the research into and demonstration of substitute liquid fuels.
液体燃料 liquid fuel 查看
例句: 提高煤矿机械化水平和采煤综合机械化程度,推进煤炭的清洁生产和利用,鼓励洁净煤技术的研发和推广,加快替代液体燃料研究和示范。 It will further mechanize coalmines and enhance overall mechanization in coal mining, promote the clean production and utilization of coal, encourage R&D and spreading of clean coal technologies, and quicken the research into and demonstration of substitute liquid fuels.
电源结构 power supply structure 查看
例句: 中国坚持以结构调整为主线,优化电源结构。 It is also a basic requirement for the steady development of the national economy and society to establish an economical, highly efficient and stable power supply system. China will optimize the power supply structure based on structural adjustment.
新能源发电 energy resources 查看
例句: 鼓励可再生能源和新能源发电。 It will encourage power generation with renewable and new energy resources.
输配电网 transmission and distribution network 查看
例句: 加强区域和输配电网络建设,扩大西电东送规模。 It will strengthen the building of regional power grids and power transmission and distribution networks and expand the scope of power transmission from western to eastern China.
电力系统 the power system 查看
例句: 实行电力统一规划和调度,建立健全电力安全应急体系,提高电力系统的安全可靠性。 Uniform planning and distribution of electric power will be adopted, and an emergency response system for power safety will be set up to enhance the safety and reliability of the power system.
电力需求 power demand 查看
例句: 继续加强电力需求侧管理,实行节能调度,努力提高能源利用效率。 China will continue to strengthen power demand-side management (DSM), exert control over power use for the purpose of conserving energy and work hard to increase energy utilization efficiency.
油砂 oil sand 查看
例句: 在经济合理的条件下,积极开发煤层气、油页岩、油砂等非常规能源。 On the condition of reasonable cost, it will actively develop coal-bed gas, oil shale and tar sand and other non-conventional energy resources.
天然气管网 gas pipeline network 查看
例句: 继续加快石油和天然气管网及配套设施建设,逐步完善全国油气管网。 The country will expedite the construction of oil and gas pipeline networks and supporting facilities and gradually improve the national network of oil and gas pipelines.
配套设施 supporting facilities 查看
例句: 继续加快石油和天然气管网及配套设施建设,逐步完善全国油气管网。 The country will expedite the construction of oil and gas pipeline networks and supporting facilities and gradually improve the national network of oil and gas pipelines.
专项资金 special funds 查看
例句: 建立了可再生能源发展专项资金,支持资源调查、技术研发、试点示范工程建设和农村可再生能源开发利用。 It has earmarked special funds for renewable energy development to support resource survey, R&D of relevant technologies, building of pilot and demonstration projects, as well as exploration and utilization of renewable energy in rural China.
市场占有率 Market share 查看
例句: 推广太阳能热利用、沼气等成熟技术,提高市场占有率。 It will spread the latest technologies for the utilization of solar energy, methane and other renewable energy sources, and increase their market shares.
气化 gasification 查看
例句: 中国通过实施“光明工程”、“农网改造”、“水电农村电气化”和“送电到乡”,同时充分利用小水电、风力和太阳能发电,改善了农村生产生活用能条件,解决了3000多万农村无电人口及偏远无电地区的用电问题,基本实现了城乡同网同价。 The Chinese government has improved the energy conditions for rural people's life and production, and solved the power problem for over 30 million rural people who had no access to electricity and in remote areas not connected to the grid, by carrying out the Lighting Project, "rural grid renovation," "electrification of hydropower-based rural areas" and "connecting villages with the grid" campaigns, and making full use of small-sized hydropower stations, wind energy and solar energy for power generation.
农村电网 rural grid 查看
例句: 继续加强农村电网建设,积极扩大电网覆盖范围。 Continuous efforts will be made to strengthen the construction of the rural grids to expand their coverage.
电网建设 grid construction 查看
例句: 继续加强农村电网建设,积极扩大电网覆盖范围。 Continuous efforts will be made to strengthen the construction of the rural grids to expand their coverage.
绿色能源 green energy 查看
例句: 积极开展绿色能源示范县建设,加快推进农村可再生能源开发利用。 Moreover, China will actively build green-energy counties for demonstration, and accelerate the exploration and utilization of renewable energy resources in rural areas.
能源示范 energy demonstration 查看
例句: 积极开展绿色能源示范县建设,加快推进农村可再生能源开发利用。 Moreover, China will actively build green-energy counties for demonstration, and accelerate the exploration and utilization of renewable energy resources in rural areas.
能源技术发展 development of energy 查看
例句: 大力加强能源科技人才培养,注重完善政策法规和技术标准,为能源技术发展创造良好条件。 It strengthens the training of talented people in energy science and technology, and improves policies, laws and regulations, and technical standards in this respect to create favorable conditions for the development of energy technologies.
能源计量 energy measurement 查看
例句: 中国把节能技术作为能源技术发展的优先主题,重点攻克高耗能领域的节能关键技术,大力提高一次能源和终端能源利用效率。实施节能技术政策大纲,引导社会投资节能技术应用。重点研究开发工业、交通运输、建筑等领域的节能技术与设备,以及可再生能源与建筑一体化、节能建材等应用技术。加强能源计量、控制、监督与管理,积极培育节能技术服务体系。 China gives priority to the development of energy-saving technologies, with focus on key technologies in the high energy-consumption sectors, to enhance the utilization efficiency of primary and end-use energy resources; implements the policy outline on energy-saving technologies and guides social investment into the application of energy-saving technologies; places emphasis on R&D of energy-saving technologies and equipment for industry, transport and construction, and the application of technologies connected with integrated renewable energy systems and energy-saving construction materials; strengthens energy measurement, control, supervision and management; and actively fosters an energy-saving technological service system.
油气资源 oil and gas resources 查看
例句: 积极发展复杂地质油气资源勘探开发和低品位油气资源高效开发技术。鼓励发展替代能源技术,优先发展可再生能源规模化利用技术。稳步推进正负800千伏直流输电和1000千伏交流特高压输电技术,以及增强电网安全技术。 It actively develops technologies in connection with prospecting for and exploitation of petroleum and gas resources under complicated geographical conditions, and highly efficient exploitation of low-grade petroleum and gas resources; encourages the development of technology for substitutes of energy resources, gives priority to the development of technologies for large-scale utilization of renewable energy; and steadily improves the technology of power transmission at voltages of ?à 800 kv DC and 1,000 kv AC and power grid safety technology.
输电技术 transmission technology 查看
例句: 积极发展复杂地质油气资源勘探开发和低品位油气资源高效开发技术。鼓励发展替代能源技术,优先发展可再生能源规模化利用技术。稳步推进正负800千伏直流输电和1000千伏交流特高压输电技术,以及增强电网安全技术。 It actively develops technologies in connection with prospecting for and exploitation of petroleum and gas resources under complicated geographical conditions, and highly efficient exploitation of low-grade petroleum and gas resources; encourages the development of technology for substitutes of energy resources, gives priority to the development of technologies for large-scale utilization of renewable energy; and steadily improves the technology of power transmission at voltages of ?à 800 kv DC and 1,000 kv AC and power grid safety technology.
核电机组 nuclear power unit 查看
例句: 鼓励发展大型煤化工成套设备,研制煤炭液化和气化、煤制烯烃等成套设备。鼓励发展大型高效清洁发电装备,发展煤电高效发电机组、大型水电及抽水蓄能机组、重型燃气轮机、先进百万千瓦级压水堆核电机组、大功率风力发电机组等,以及特高压输变电设备。 It supports the development of complete sets of large equipment for coal chemicals as well as R&D of coal liquefaction and gasification, and coal-to-olefin conversion equipment, the development of high-efficiency and low-pollution power generation equipment, high-efficiency coal-fired power generation units, hydropower and pumped-storage units, heavy-duty gas turbines, PWR nuclear power generation units with a capacity of one million kw, high-power wind-driven generators, and superhigh-power transmission and transformation machinery.
液化天然气 liquefied natural gas 查看
例句: 鼓励发展石油天然气勘探、钻采装备,支持大型海洋石油工程设备、30万吨原油运输船、液化天然气运输船及大功率柴油机等配套设备。 It encourages the development of oil and natural gas prospecting and drilling equipment and support equipment for large offshore oil projects, crude oil carriers with a capacity of 300,000 dwt, liquefied natural gas carriers and high-power diesel engines.
前沿技术研究 frontier technological research 查看
例句: ——加强前沿技术研究。 -- Strengthening frontier technology research.
系统集成 system integration 查看
例句: 中国重点研究化石能源、生物质能源和可再生能源制氢、经济高效储氢及输配技术,研究燃料电池基础关键部件制备及电堆集成、燃料电池发电及车用动力系统集成技术等。 China focuses on research into conversion from fossil, biomass and renewable energy resources to hydrogen, and high-efficiency hydrogen storage, transmission and distribution technology.
能源转换 energy conversion 查看
例句: 研究突破化石能源微小型燃气轮机等终端能源转换、储能及热电冷三联产技术。 It also conducts research into the technology for the manufacturing of basic and key components of fuel cells, integration of fuel cell stacks, fuel cell power generation and automotive fuel cell power systems, and strives to make breakthroughs in the technology for the end-use energy conversion, storage and combined cooling, heating and power projection of fossil energy-based micro-miniature gas turbine systems.
全球性问题 global issue 查看
例句: 气候变化是国际社会普遍关心的重大全球性问题。 Climate change is a significant global issue of worldwide concern.
化石燃料 fossil fuel 查看
例句: 中国是处于工业化初期的发展中国家,历史累计排放少,从1950年到2002年,中国化石燃料二氧化碳排放只占同期世界排放量的9.3%,人均二氧化碳排放量居世界第92位,单位GDP二氧化碳排放弹性系数也很小。 China is a developing country in the primary stage of industrialization, and with low accumulative emissions. From 1950 to 2002, the aggregate amount of China's fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions accounted for only 9.3 percent of the world's total in the same period. The amount of China's per-capita carbon dioxide emissions ranked 92nd in the world, and the elasticity coefficient of carbon dioxide emissions per-unit GDP was very small.
弹性系数 elasticity coefficient 查看
例句: 中国是处于工业化初期的发展中国家,历史累计排放少,从1950年到2002年,中国化石燃料二氧化碳排放只占同期世界排放量的9.3%,人均二氧化碳排放量居世界第92位,单位GDP二氧化碳排放弹性系数也很小。 China is a developing country in the primary stage of industrialization, and with low accumulative emissions. From 1950 to 2002, the aggregate amount of China's fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions accounted for only 9.3 percent of the world's total in the same period. The amount of China's per-capita carbon dioxide emissions ranked 92nd in the world, and the elasticity coefficient of carbon dioxide emissions per-unit GDP was very small.
全球气候变化 global climate change 查看
例句: 中国作为负责任的发展中国家,高度重视环境保护和全球气候变化。 As a responsible developing country, China attaches great importance to environmental protection and prevention of global climate change.
气候变化框架公约 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 查看
例句: 中国政府将保护环境作为一项基本国策,签署了《联合国气候变化框架公约》,成立了国家气候变化对策协调机构,提交了《气候变化初始国家信息通报》,建立了《清洁发展机制项目管理办法》,制订了《中国应对气候变化国家方案》,并采取了一系列与保护环境和应对气候变化相关的政策和措施。 The Chinese government has made environmental protection a fundamental state policy, signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, established the National Coordination Committee for Climate Change, submitted to the UN the Initial National Communication on Climate Change of the People's Republic of China, worked out the Management Measures on the Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism Projects, formulated the National Climate Change Program, and adopted a series of proactive policies and measures regarding environmental protection and climate change.
补偿机制 compensation mechanism 查看
例句: 加快采煤沉陷区的治理和煤层气的开发利用,建立并完善煤炭资源开发和生态环境恢复补偿机制。 The country is quickening its pace of control of coal mining subsidence areas and the exploitation and utilization of coal-bed gas, and establishes and improves the compensation mechanism for the exploitation of coal resources and restoration of the eco-environment.
排放标准 emission standards 查看
例句: 加快燃煤电厂脱硫设施建设,新建燃煤电厂必须根据排放标准安装并使用脱硫装置,现有燃煤电厂加快脱硫改造。 At the same time, it is expediting the construction of desulfurizing facilities in coal-fired power plants, requiring that newly built coal-fired power plants must install and use desulfurizing facilities according to the permissible emission standards, and such existing plants must speed up their desulfurization upgrading.
轨道交通 rail transport 查看
例句: 中国正在积极采取有效措施,严格实施机动车排放标准,加强环保一致性检查,确保新生产机动车稳定达标;严格实施在用机动车环保年检制度;严格禁止制造、销售和进口超过排放标准的机动车;鼓励生产和使用低污染的清洁燃料机动车,鼓励生产混合动力汽车,支持发展轨道交通和电动公交车。 China is actively taking effective measures to this end: strictly enforcing vehicle emission standards; intensifying inspection for the environment-friendly production of vehicles; strictly implementing the annual emission inspection system for motor vehicles; strictly forbidding manufacture, sale and import of motor vehicles exceeding the emission limits. At the same time, China encourages the production and use of vehicles burning clean fuels, and the production of hybrid electric vehicles, and supports the development of rail transport and electric buses.
电动公交车 electric bus 查看
例句: 中国正在积极采取有效措施,严格实施机动车排放标准,加强环保一致性检查,确保新生产机动车稳定达标;严格实施在用机动车环保年检制度;严格禁止制造、销售和进口超过排放标准的机动车;鼓励生产和使用低污染的清洁燃料机动车,鼓励生产混合动力汽车,支持发展轨道交通和电动公交车。 China is actively taking effective measures to this end: strictly enforcing vehicle emission standards; intensifying inspection for the environment-friendly production of vehicles; strictly implementing the annual emission inspection system for motor vehicles; strictly forbidding manufacture, sale and import of motor vehicles exceeding the emission limits. At the same time, China encourages the production and use of vehicles burning clean fuels, and the production of hybrid electric vehicles, and supports the development of rail transport and electric buses.
环境管理 environmental management 查看
例句: ——严格能源项目的环境管理。 -- Exercising strict environmental management of energy projects.
能源工程 energy engineering 查看
例句: 新建、扩建和改建能源工程项目建设与环境保护设施同时设计、同时施工、同时投入使用。加强核电项目的安全管理,强化对已运行核电站、研究堆、核燃料循环设施的安全与辐射环境的监督管理,积极做好在建核电设施安全评审和监督工作。 It ensures simultaneous design, construction and launching of environmental protection facilities at new, expansion and rebuilding projects, intensifies safe management of nuclear power projects, reinforces supervision and management of the safety and radiation environment of nuclear power plants, research reactors and fuel cycle facilities in operation, and practices meticulous safety examination and supervision of nuclear power facilities under construction.
研究堆 research reactor 查看
例句: 新建、扩建和改建能源工程项目建设与环境保护设施同时设计、同时施工、同时投入使用。加强核电项目的安全管理,强化对已运行核电站、研究堆、核燃料循环设施的安全与辐射环境的监督管理,积极做好在建核电设施安全评审和监督工作。 It ensures simultaneous design, construction and launching of environmental protection facilities at new, expansion and rebuilding projects, intensifies safe management of nuclear power projects, reinforces supervision and management of the safety and radiation environment of nuclear power plants, research reactors and fuel cycle facilities in operation, and practices meticulous safety examination and supervision of nuclear power facilities under construction.
监督管理 supervision and management 查看
例句: 新建、扩建和改建能源工程项目建设与环境保护设施同时设计、同时施工、同时投入使用。加强核电项目的安全管理,强化对已运行核电站、研究堆、核燃料循环设施的安全与辐射环境的监督管理,积极做好在建核电设施安全评审和监督工作。 It ensures simultaneous design, construction and launching of environmental protection facilities at new, expansion and rebuilding projects, intensifies safe management of nuclear power projects, reinforces supervision and management of the safety and radiation environment of nuclear power plants, research reactors and fuel cycle facilities in operation, and practices meticulous safety examination and supervision of nuclear power facilities under construction.
水资源 water resources 查看
例句: 进一步加强水电建设中的生态环境保护,在满足江河流域综合开发利用的要求下,在保护中开发,在开发中保护,注重提高水资源的综合利用和生态环境效益。 It further enhances environmental protection efforts in the construction of hydropower projects, pays equal attention to the requirements of comprehensive development and utilization of river basins while protecting the environment, and increasing the level of comprehensive utilization of water resources and eco-environmental benefits.
环境效益 environmental benefit 查看
例句: 进一步加强水电建设中的生态环境保护,在满足江河流域综合开发利用的要求下,在保护中开发,在开发中保护,注重提高水资源的综合利用和生态环境效益。 It further enhances environmental protection efforts in the construction of hydropower projects, pays equal attention to the requirements of comprehensive development and utilization of river basins while protecting the environment, and increasing the level of comprehensive utilization of water resources and eco-environmental benefits.
能源事业 energy industry 查看
例句: 中国按照完善社会主义市场经济体制的要求,稳步推进能源体制改革,促进能源事业发展。 In accordance with the requirements of perfecting the socialist market economy, China is steadily advancing its energy system reform to promote the development of the energy industry.
战略性重组 strategic reorganization 查看
例句: 1998年实现了石油企业的战略性重组,建立了上下游一体化的新型石油工业管理体制。 In 1998, strategic reorganization was accomplished among petroleum enterprises, featuring the establishment of new vertically integrated management system of oil industry.
体制创新 system innovation 查看
例句: 中国正在按照观念创新、管理创新、体制创新和机制创新的要求,进一步深化能源体制改革,提高能源市场化程度,完善能源宏观调控体系,不断改善能源发展环境。 China is further deepening reform of the energy system, elevating the energy marketization level, improving the energy macro-control system, and improving the environment for energy development in accordance with the requirements of innovation in concept, management, system and mechanism.
政策措施 policies and measures 查看
例句: 中国高度重视并积极推进能源法律制度建设,《清洁生产促进法》、《可再生能源法》已经颁布实施,配套政策措施陆续出台;修订后的《节约能源法》已经公布;《能源法》、《循环经济法》、《石油天然气管道保护法》及《建筑节能条例》正在抓紧制订;《矿产资源法》、《煤炭法》和《电力法》正在抓紧修订。 China sets great store by and actively advances the construction of the energy legal system. China has enacted and put in force the Clean Production Promotion Law and Renewable Energy Law, and has issued a series of supporting policies and measures. The amended Energy Conservation Law has been promulgated. The Energy Law, Circular Economy Law, Law on the Protection of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines and Regulations on Energy Conservation of Buildings are being formulated. The Mineral Resources Law, Coal Industry Law, and Electric Power Law are being revised.
天然气管道 gas pipeline 查看
例句: 中国高度重视并积极推进能源法律制度建设,《清洁生产促进法》、《可再生能源法》已经颁布实施,配套政策措施陆续出台;修订后的《节约能源法》已经公布;《能源法》、《循环经济法》、《石油天然气管道保护法》及《建筑节能条例》正在抓紧制订;《矿产资源法》、《煤炭法》和《电力法》正在抓紧修订。 China sets great store by and actively advances the construction of the energy legal system. China has enacted and put in force the Clean Production Promotion Law and Renewable Energy Law, and has issued a series of supporting policies and measures. The amended Energy Conservation Law has been promulgated. The Energy Law, Circular Economy Law, Law on the Protection of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines and Regulations on Energy Conservation of Buildings are being formulated. The Mineral Resources Law, Coal Industry Law, and Electric Power Law are being revised.
能源领域 energy field 查看
例句: 同时,也正在积极着手研究石油天然气、原油市场和原子能等能源领域的立法。 Meanwhile, active efforts have been made in research into energy legislation concerning oil and natural gas, the crude oil market and atomic energy.
电网运行 operation of power grid 查看
例句: 中国实行电力统一调度、分级管理、分区运行,统筹安排电网运行。 China practices unified power dispatch, hierarchical power management and operation of power grids by regions.
应急预案 emergency response plans 查看
例句: 建立了政府部门、监管机构和电力企业分工负责的安全责任体系,电网和发电企业建立应对大规模突发事故的应急预案。 A safety responsibility system with division of work among government departments, supervision organs and power enterprises has been established, in which the power grids and power generation enterprises work out emergency response plans to cope with large-scale emergencies.
信息服务 information services 查看
例句: 进一步转变政府职能,注重政策引导,重视信息服务。 The Chinese government has furthered the transformation of government functions, giving priority to guidance by policy measures and attaching importance to information services.
市场供求 market supply and demand 查看
例句: 中国政府在妥善处理不同利益群体关系、充分考虑社会各方面承受能力的情况下,积极稳妥地推进能源价格改革,逐步建立能够反映资源稀缺程度、市场供求关系和环境成本的价格形成机制。 On the premise of properly handling the relations among various interest groups and taking full account of the acceptability of all social sectors, the Chinese government has advanced energy price reform in a vigorous yet steady way, gradually established a pricing mechanism that is able to reflect resource scarcities, changes in market supply and demand, and environmental costs.
亚太经济合作组织 APEC 查看
例句: 在多边合作方面,中国是亚太经济合作组织能源工作组、东盟与中日韩(10+3)能源合作、国际能源论坛、世界能源大会及亚太清洁发展和气候新伙伴计划的正式成员,是能源宪章的观察员,与国际能源机构、石油输出国组织等国际组织保持着密切联系。 In multilateral cooperation, China is a member of the energy working group of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) plus China, Japan and ROK (10+3) Energy Cooperation, International Energy Forum, World Energy Conference, and Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean Development and Climate. It is an observer of the Energy Charter, and maintains close relations with such international organizations as the World Energy Agency and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
能源论坛 Energy Forum 查看
例句: 在多边合作方面,中国是亚太经济合作组织能源工作组、东盟与中日韩(10+3)能源合作、国际能源论坛、世界能源大会及亚太清洁发展和气候新伙伴计划的正式成员,是能源宪章的观察员,与国际能源机构、石油输出国组织等国际组织保持着密切联系。 In multilateral cooperation, China is a member of the energy working group of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) plus China, Japan and ROK (10+3) Energy Cooperation, International Energy Forum, World Energy Conference, and Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean Development and Climate. It is an observer of the Energy Charter, and maintains close relations with such international organizations as the World Energy Agency and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
信息数据 information data 查看
例句: 在双边合作方面,中国与美国、日本、欧盟、俄罗斯等许多能源消费国和生产国都建立了能源对话与合作机制,在能源开发、利用、技术、环保、可再生能源和新能源等领域加强对话与合作,在能源政策、信息数据等方面开展广泛的沟通与交流。 Regarding bilateral cooperation, China has established a mechanism for dialogue and cooperation in the field of energy with a number of energy consuming and producing countries, such as the US, Japan and Russia, and the European Union. It has intensified dialogue and cooperation regarding energy exploration, utilization, technology and environmental protection, as well as renewable energy and new energy resources, and has had extensive dialogues and exchanges with them in such aspects as energy policy and information data.
中西部地区 western regions 查看
例句: 2002年制定了《指导外商投资方向规定》,2004年修订了《外商投资产业指导目录》和《中西部地区外商投资优势产业目录》,鼓励外商投资能源及相关的采掘、生产、供应及运输领域,鼓励投资设备制造产业,鼓励外商投资中西部地区能源产业。 In 2002, China formulated the Regulations for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Orientation, and revised the Catalogue of Industrial Guidance for Foreign Investment and the Catalogue of Advantageous Industries for Foreign Investment in the Central and Western Regions in 2004, in order to encourage foreign investment in the energy sector, including energy and energy-related exploitation, production, supply, transportation and energy equipment production, as well as in the energy sector of the central and western regions.
能源贸易 energy trade 查看
例句: 在今后相当长一段时间内,国际能源贸易仍将是中国利用国外能源的主要方式。 For a fairly long time to come, international energy trade will remain a major way by which China utilizes foreign energy resources.
进出口贸易 imports and exports 查看
例句: 按照世界贸易组织规则和加入世界贸易组织的承诺,开展能源进出口贸易,完善公平贸易政策。 China will pursue energy imports and exports, and improve policies for fair trade in accordance with its commitments to the WTO and the WTO rules.
供货合同 supply contract 查看
例句: 逐步改变目前原油现货贸易比重过大的状况,鼓励与国外公司签订长期供货合同,促进贸易渠道多元化。 It will, step by step, change the current situation of relying too heavily on spot trading of crude oil, encourage the signing of long-term supply contracts with foreign companies, and promote the diversification of trading channels.
安全观 security concept 查看
例句: 要实现世界经济平稳有序发展,需要国际社会推进经济全球化向着均衡、普惠、共赢的方向发展,需要国际社会树立互利合作、多元发展、协同保障的新能源安全观。 To realize a steady and orderly development of the world economy, it is necessary to promote economic globalization to develop in a direction featuring balance, universal benefit and win-win, and it is necessary for the international community to foster a new concept of energy security characterized by mutual benefit and cooperation, diversified development and coordinated guarantee.
知识产权保护 intellectual property rights protection 查看
例句: 国际社会要从人类社会可持续发展的高度,处理好资金投入、知识产权保护、先进技术推广等问题,使世界各国都从中受益,共同分享人类进步成果。 Aiming at the sustainable development of humanity, the international community should handle well the problems concerning capital input, intellectual property rights protection and popularization of advanced technology, so as to benefit all countries and allow them to share humanity's achievements.
时代主题 trend of the times 查看
例句: 和平与发展仍然是时代主题,求和平、谋发展、促合作已成为不可阻挡的时代潮流。 Peace and development remain the themes of our era. Pursuing peace, seeking development and promoting cooperation have become an irresistible trend of the times.
普遍服务 universal energy service 查看
例句: 六、提高能源普遍服务水平 VI. Improving Universal Energy Service
过度消耗 excessive consumption 查看
例句: 为减少对能源资源的过度消耗,实现经济、社会、生态全面协调可持续发展,中国不断加大节能减排力度,努力提高能源利用效率,单位国内生产总值能源消耗逐年下降。 To curb excessive consumption of energy resources and achieve the comprehensive, balanced and sustainable development of the economy, society and ecology, China keeps strengthening its efforts in energy conservation and emission reduction, and strives to raise the efficiency of energy utilization. As a result, energy consumption per unit of GDP has been decreasing year by year.
石油管线 oil pipelines 查看
例句: 石油管线长度超过7万公里,天然气主干管线长度达到4万公里。 The length of oil pipelines totaled more than 70,000 km, and the natural gas trunk lines exceeded 40,000 km.
主干管线 trunk lines 查看
例句: 石油管线长度超过7万公里,天然气主干管线长度达到4万公里。 The length of oil pipelines totaled more than 70,000 km, and the natural gas trunk lines exceeded 40,000 km.
输电线路 transmission lines 查看
例句: 电网基本实现全国互联,330千伏及以上输电线路长度17.9万公里。 Electric power grids were linked up throughout the country, and electricity transmission lines of 330 kv or more totaled 179,000 km.
光伏发电 photovoltaic power generation 查看
例句: 光伏发电增长强劲,装机容量达到300万千瓦。 Photovoltaic power generation also reported speedy growth, with a total installed capacity of 3 million kw.
太阳能热水器集热面积 Solar water heating covered a total area 查看
例句: 太阳能热水器集热面积超过2亿平方米。 Solar water heating covered a total area of 200 million sq m.
太阳能热水器 solar water heaters 查看
例句: 太阳能热水器集热面积超过2亿平方米。 Solar water heating covered a total area of 200 million sq m.
集热 heat collection 查看
例句: 太阳能热水器集热面积超过2亿平方米。 Solar water heating covered a total area of 200 million sq m.
地热能 geothermal energy 查看
例句: 积极开展沼气、地热能、潮汐能等其他可再生能源推广应用。 The state also expedites the use of biogas, geothermal energy, tidal energy and other renewable energy resources.
潮汐能 tidal energy 查看
例句: 积极开展沼气、地热能、潮汐能等其他可再生能源推广应用。 The state also expedites the use of biogas, geothermal energy, tidal energy and other renewable energy resources.
风电机组 wind power generators 查看
例句: 3兆瓦风电机组批量应用,6兆瓦风电机组成功下线。 China is now able to independently design and build one-million-kw pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants, and has made outstanding breakthroughs in the R&D of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and fast reactors. Also, 3,000-kw wind power generators have been mass-produced and 6,000 kw wind power generators have come off the production line. have been mass-produced and 6,000 kw wind power generators have come off the production line.
用电量 electricity consumption 查看
例句: 与2006年相比,2011年中国人均一次能源消费量达到2.6吨标准煤,提高了31%;人均天然气消费量89.6立方米,提高了110%;人均用电量3493千瓦时,提高了60%。 Compared with 2006, the per-capita primary energy consumption in 2011 equaled 2.6 tons of standard coal, a 31 percent increase; the per-capita natural gas consumption reached 89.6 cu m, an increase of 110 percent; and the per-capita electricity consumption was 3,493 kw, a 60 percent increase.
脱硝 denitration 查看
例句: 加快建设燃煤电厂脱硫、脱硝设施,烟气脱硫机组占全国燃煤机组的比重达到90%左右。 Existing power plants have speeded up their desulfurization and denitration upgrading, and coal-fueled generating units with flue gas desulphurization facilities accounted for 90 percent of the national total.
资源配置 resource allocation 查看
例句: 市场机制在资源配置中发挥出越来越大的作用。 The market mechanism is playing an increasingly important role in resource allocation.
民间投资 private investment 查看
例句: 能源领域投资主体实现多元化,民间投资不断发展壮大。 Investors in the energy field are diversified, and private investment in it keeps growing.
监管体系 supervision system 查看
例句: 电力工业实现政企分开、厂网分离,监管体系初步建立。 In the electric power industry, government administrative functions and enterprise management have been separated, as has power production from power transmission, and a supervisory system has taken shape.
公共机构 public institutions 查看
例句: 加强能源法制建设,近年来新修订出台了《节约能源法》、《可再生能源法》、《循环经济促进法》、《石油天然气管道保护法》以及《民用建筑节能条例》、《公共机构节能条例》等法律法规。 The legal system of energy-related laws has been strengthened, and a number of laws and regulations have been amended and published in the past few years, including the Energy Conservation Law, Renewable Energy Law, Circular Economy Promotion Law, Law on the Protection of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, Regulations on Energy Conservation in Civil Buildings, and Regulations on Energy Conservation by Public Institutions.
新兴工业化国家 newly industrialized countries 查看
例句: 中国单位国内生产总值能耗不仅远高于发达国家,也高于一些新兴工业化国家。 Energy consumption per unit of GDP is much higher than those of developed countries and some newly industrialized countries. Energy-intensive industries are backward in technology.
安全风险 security risk 查看
例句: 石油海上运输安全风险加大,跨境油气管道安全运行问题不容忽视。 Marine transportation of petroleum and cross-border pipeline transmission of oil and gas face ever-greater security risks.
油气管道 oil and gas pipelines 查看
例句: 石油海上运输安全风险加大,跨境油气管道安全运行问题不容忽视。 Marine transportation of petroleum and cross-border pipeline transmission of oil and gas face ever-greater security risks.
安全运行 safe operation 查看
例句: 石油海上运输安全风险加大,跨境油气管道安全运行问题不容忽视。 Marine transportation of petroleum and cross-border pipeline transmission of oil and gas face ever-greater security risks.
价格波动 Price fluctuations 查看
例句: 国际能源市场价格波动增加了保障国内能源供应难度。 Price fluctuations in the international energy market make it more difficult to guarantee domestic energy supply.
国内资源优势 domestic resource advantages 查看
例句: 立足国内资源优势和发展基础,着力增强能源供给保障能力,完善能源储备应急体系,合理控制对外依存度,提高能源安全保障水平。 The country relies on domestic resource advantages and its own development basis, makes special efforts to enhance its energy supply capability and security, improves its emergency energy reserve and emergency response systems, and controls its dependence on foreign energy sources.
资源优势 resource advantages 查看
例句: 立足国内资源优势和发展基础,着力增强能源供给保障能力,完善能源储备应急体系,合理控制对外依存度,提高能源安全保障水平。 The country relies on domestic resource advantages and its own development basis, makes special efforts to enhance its energy supply capability and security, improves its emergency energy reserve and emergency response systems, and controls its dependence on foreign energy sources.
生态文明 ecological civilization 查看
例句: 树立绿色、低碳发展理念,统筹能源资源开发利用与生态环境保护,在保护中开发,在开发中保护,积极培育符合生态文明要求的能源发展模式。 The state encourages fostering the concept of environment-friendly and low-carbon development, coordinates the development and use of energy resources with the protection of the eco-environment while paying equal attention to both, and actively fosters an energy development pattern that meets the requirements of ecological civilization.
能源发展模式 energy development pattern 查看
例句: 树立绿色、低碳发展理念,统筹能源资源开发利用与生态环境保护,在保护中开发,在开发中保护,积极培育符合生态文明要求的能源发展模式。 The state encourages fostering the concept of environment-friendly and low-carbon development, coordinates the development and use of energy resources with the protection of the eco-environment while paying equal attention to both, and actively fosters an energy development pattern that meets the requirements of ecological civilization.
走出去 go global 查看
例句: 统筹国内国际两个大局,大力拓展能源国际合作范围、渠道和方式,提升能源“走出去”和“引进来”水平,推动建立国际能源新秩序,努力实现合作共赢。 China gives simultaneous consideration to both domestic and international energy development, works to increase the scope, channels and forms of international cooperation, enhances its capability to "introduce" and "go global," propels the establishment of a new international energy order and promotes mutually beneficial cooperation.
合作共赢 mutually beneficial cooperation 查看
例句: 统筹国内国际两个大局,大力拓展能源国际合作范围、渠道和方式,提升能源“走出去”和“引进来”水平,推动建立国际能源新秩序,努力实现合作共赢。 China gives simultaneous consideration to both domestic and international energy development, works to increase the scope, channels and forms of international cooperation, enhances its capability to "introduce" and "go global," propels the establishment of a new international energy order and promotes mutually beneficial cooperation.
能源贫困 energy poverty 查看
例句: 统筹城乡和区域能源发展,加强能源基础设施和基本公共服务能力建设,尽快消除能源贫困,努力提高人民群众用能水平。 The state coordinates energy development in both urban and rural areas, enhances energy infrastructure and basic public services, and strives to eliminate energy poverty and improve civil energy-use conditions.
工业锅炉 industrial boilers 查看
例句: 实施“十大节能工程”,推动燃煤工业锅炉(窑炉)改造、余热余压利用、电机系统节能、建筑节能、绿色照明、政府机构节能,形成3.4亿吨标准煤的节能能力。 China carried out ten key energy-conservation projects, including the innovation of coal-fueled industrial boilers (kilns), surplus heat and pressure utilization, energy saving in electrical motors, construction of energy-saving buildings, the green lighting project, and energy saving in government bodies, thus increasing its energy-conservation capacity to 340 million tons of standard coal.
窑炉 kiln 查看
例句: 实施“十大节能工程”,推动燃煤工业锅炉(窑炉)改造、余热余压利用、电机系统节能、建筑节能、绿色照明、政府机构节能,形成3.4亿吨标准煤的节能能力。 China carried out ten key energy-conservation projects, including the innovation of coal-fueled industrial boilers (kilns), surplus heat and pressure utilization, energy saving in electrical motors, construction of energy-saving buildings, the green lighting project, and energy saving in government bodies, thus increasing its energy-conservation capacity to 340 million tons of standard coal.
战略性调整 strategic restructuring 查看
例句: 2011年,中国发布了《“十二五”节能减排综合性工作方案》,提出“十二五”期间节能减排的主要目标和重点工作,把降低能源强度、减少主要污染物排放总量、合理控制能源消费总量工作有机结合起来,形成“倒逼机制”,推动经济结构战略性调整,优化产业结构和布局,强化工业、建筑、交通运输、公共机构以及城乡建设和消费领域用能管理,全面建设资源节约型和环境友好型社会。 In 2011, the State Council released the Comprehensive Work Plan on Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction During the 12th Five-Year Plan Period. This plan proposed the major objectives and key actions in the fields of energy conservation and emission reduction during this period. China aims to establish a "reverse coercion mechanism" through the dynamic integration of its efforts in lowering the intensity of energy consumption, reducing the total emissions of major pollutants, and rationally controlling total energy consumption. The "reverse coercion mechanism" helps promote the strategic restructuring of the economy, push forward the optimization of the industrial structure, and strengthen all aspects of energy utilization management in industry, construction, transportation, and public organizations, as well as in the fields of urban and rural construction and consumption, thus contributing to the building of a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society.
加工贸易 processing trade 查看
例句: 提高加工贸易准入门槛,促进加工贸易转型升级。 It raises the entry threshold for processing trade, and promotes its transformation and upgrading.
转型升级 transformation and upgrading 查看
例句: 提高加工贸易准入门槛,促进加工贸易转型升级。 It raises the entry threshold for processing trade, and promotes its transformation and upgrading.
重点行业 Key industries 查看
例句: 国家制定钢铁、石化、有色、建材等重点行业节能减排先进适用技术目录,淘汰落后的工艺、装备和产品,发展节能型、高附加值的产品和装备。 The state has drawn up catalog of advanced and applicable technologies in the fields of energy conservation and emission reduction for key industries such as iron and steel, petrochemicals, non-ferrous metals and building materials, for the purpose of eliminating backward technology, equipment and products, and developing energy-saving and high-value-added products and equipment.
节能评估审查制度 energy-saving evaluation and supervision system 查看
例句: 建立完善重点行业单位产品能耗限额强制性标准体系,强化节能评估审查制度。 It has established and improved a mandatory standards system of quotas for energy consumption per-unit product in key industries, and strengthened the energy-saving evaluation and supervision system.
绿色建筑 green building 查看
例句: 国家大力发展绿色建筑,全面推进建筑节能。 China makes vigorous efforts to construct green buildings and comprehensively advance energy conservation in buildings.
公共建筑 public buildings 查看
例句: 推进既有建筑节能改造,实行公共建筑能耗限额和能效公示制度,建立建筑使用全寿命周期管理制度,严格建筑拆除管理。 It actively promotes energy-saving renovation of existing buildings, and sets quotas for energy consumption by public buildings and publicizes their energy efficiency rates. It has set up a management system for the life cycles of buildings, and exercises strict control over demolition of buildings.
供热计量 heat metering 查看
例句: 推进北方采暖地区既有建筑供热计量和节能改造,实施“节能暖房”工程,改造供热老旧管网,实行供热计量收费和能耗定额管理。 It carries forward heat metering and energy efficiency renovations on existing residential heating systems in the northern regions of China, builds energy-saving greenhouses, improves the old heat-supply network, and practices metered heat-supply charging and energy consumption quota management.
热计量 heat metering 查看
例句: 推进北方采暖地区既有建筑供热计量和节能改造,实施“节能暖房”工程,改造供热老旧管网,实行供热计量收费和能耗定额管理。 It carries forward heat metering and energy efficiency renovations on existing residential heating systems in the northern regions of China, builds energy-saving greenhouses, improves the old heat-supply network, and practices metered heat-supply charging and energy consumption quota management.
能耗定额 consumption quota 查看
例句: 推进北方采暖地区既有建筑供热计量和节能改造,实施“节能暖房”工程,改造供热老旧管网,实行供热计量收费和能耗定额管理。 It carries forward heat metering and energy efficiency renovations on existing residential heating systems in the northern regions of China, builds energy-saving greenhouses, improves the old heat-supply network, and practices metered heat-supply charging and energy consumption quota management.
新能源汽车 new energy vehicles 查看
例句: 积极推进新能源汽车研发与应用,科学规划和建设加气、充电等配套设施。 It actively develops and popularizes new energy vehicles, and makes scientific plans for the construction of supporting facilities, including compressed natural gas filling and electricity charging facilities.
安置政策 resettlement policies 查看
例句: 完善水电移民安置政策,健全利益共享机制。 The country strives to improve its resettlement policies regarding local people affected by hydropower projects, and perfect the benefit-sharing mechanism.
总发电量 total power 查看
例句: 目前中国核电发电量仅占总发电量的1.8%,远远低于14%的世界平均水平。 At present, nuclear power only accounts for 1.8 percent of China's total power output, far below the world average, which is 14 percent.
核安全 nuclear safety 查看
例句: 核安全是核电发展的生命线。 Nuclear safety is essential for nuclear power development.
核事故 nuclear disaster 查看
例句: 日本福岛核事故发生后,中国对境内核电厂开展了全面、严格的综合安全检查。 Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, China has launched comprehensive safety inspections at all nuclear power plants. The inspection results show that nuclear security is guaranteed in China.
核电厂 nuclear power plant 查看
例句: 日本福岛核事故发生后,中国对境内核电厂开展了全面、严格的综合安全检查。 Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, China has launched comprehensive safety inspections at all nuclear power plants. The inspection results show that nuclear security is guaranteed in China.
运行参数 operating parameters 查看
例句: 检查结果表明,中国核电安全是有保障的,在运核电机组20年来从未发生过2级及以上核安全事件(事故),主要运行参数好于世界平均值,部分指标进入国际先进行列或达到国际领先水平。 Over the past 20 years, Chinese nuclear power units in operation have never had accidents at and above Level 2, with major operating parameters being better than the world's average and some indices even reaching the leading or advanced world level.
安全监督 safety supervision 查看
例句: 完善核电监管体系,加强在建及运行核电厂的安全监督检查和辐射环境监督管理。 It has improved the supervision system of nuclear power by strengthening safety supervision and inspection, and radiation environment supervision and management at nuclear power plants in operation and under construction.
辐射环境监督管理 radiation environment supervision and management 查看
例句: 完善核电监管体系,加强在建及运行核电厂的安全监督检查和辐射环境监督管理。 It has improved the supervision system of nuclear power by strengthening safety supervision and inspection, and radiation environment supervision and management at nuclear power plants in operation and under construction.
现阶段最 currently the most 查看
例句: 风电是现阶段最具规模化开发和市场化利用条件的非水可再生能源。 As a non-water renewable energy, wind power is currently the most appropriate energy source for large-scale development and market-driven utilization.
风电建设 wind power construction 查看
例句: 有序推进西北、华北、东北风能资源丰富地区风电建设,加快分散风能资源的开发利用。 It will push forward wind power construction in an orderly way in the northwestern, northern and northeastern regions, which boast abundant wind energy, and speed up the development and utilization of distributed resources.
技术升级 technological upgrading 查看
例句: 鼓励风电设备企业加强关键技术研发,加快风电产业技术升级。 China will encourage wind-power equipment manufacturers to expedite R&D of key technologies, so as to accelerate the technological upgrading of this industry.
工业应用 industrial applications 查看
例句: 加大太阳能热水器普及力度,鼓励太阳能集中供热水、太阳能采暖和制冷、太阳能中高温工业应用。 Intensified efforts will be made to popularize solar water heaters, and promote the development of solar central hot-water supply, solar heating and cooling, and medium- and high-temperature industrial applications of solar energy.
太阳能集热面积 solar heat collection area 查看
例句: 到2015年,中国将建成太阳能发电装机容量2100万千瓦以上,太阳能集热面积达到4亿平方米。 China's installed generating capacity of solar energy is expected to exceed 21 million kw by 2015, with a total solar heat collection area of 400 million sq m.
作物秸秆 crop stalk 查看
例句: 在粮棉主产区,有序发展以农作物秸秆、粮食加工剩余物和蔗渣等为燃料的生物质发电。 It will promote power generation using crop stalks, grain-processing residues and bagasse as fuels in major producing areas of grain and cotton; and carefully develop woody biomass power generation in forest-covered areas.
加工剩余物 processing residue 查看
例句: 在粮棉主产区,有序发展以农作物秸秆、粮食加工剩余物和蔗渣等为燃料的生物质发电。 It will promote power generation using crop stalks, grain-processing residues and bagasse as fuels in major producing areas of grain and cotton; and carefully develop woody biomass power generation in forest-covered areas.
成型燃料 molding fuel 查看
例句: 发展城市垃圾焚烧和填埋气发电。在具备条件的地区推进沼气等生物质供气工程。因地制宜建设生物质成型燃料生产基地。 The country will also speed up the construction of biomass gas, including methane, supply systems in eligible regions, and build production bases of biomass molding fuel in accordance with local conditions.
生物柴油 biodiesel 查看
例句: 发展生物柴油,开展纤维素乙醇产业示范。 Efforts will also be made to develop biodiesel and industrial cellulosic ethanol.
纤维素乙醇 cellulosic ethanol 查看
例句: 发展生物柴油,开展纤维素乙醇产业示范。 Efforts will also be made to develop biodiesel and industrial cellulosic ethanol.
能源负荷中心 distributed energy systems 查看
例句: 在能源负荷中心,加快建设天然气分布式能源系统。 It will accelerate the construction of distributed energy systems (DES) for natural gas at energy load centers.
工业园区 industrial parks 查看
例句: 以城市、工业园区等能源消费中心为重点,大力推进分布式可再生能源技术应用。 It will energetically spread the technology of distributed renewable energy, especially in high energy-consumption centers, including cities and industrial parks.
能源示范区域 energy demonstration areas 查看
例句: “十二五”期间建设1000个左右天然气分布式能源项目,以及10个左右各类典型特征的分布式能源示范区域。 During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, China will construct about 1,000 projects of natural gas DES, and ten distributed energy demonstration areas with various typical characteristics.
示范区域 demonstration areas 查看
例句: “十二五”期间建设1000个左右天然气分布式能源项目,以及10个左右各类典型特征的分布式能源示范区域。 During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, China will construct about 1,000 projects of natural gas DES, and ten distributed energy demonstration areas with various typical characteristics.
发展西部 development in the western 查看
例句: 按照控制东部、稳定中部、发展西部的原则,推进陕北、黄陇、神东等14个大型煤炭基地建设。 Following the principle of "enforcing control in the eastern regions, maintaining stability in the central regions, and promoting development in the western regions," it will push ahead with the building of 14 large coal-mining bases, including the Shaanbei, Huanglong and Shendong coalfields.
兼并重组 merger and reorganization 查看
例句: 实施煤炭资源整合和煤矿企业兼并重组,发展大型煤炭企业集团。 By means of integration of coal resources, and merger and reorganization of coal mining enterprises, the country will bring into being large coal mining conglomerates.
长产业链 extensive industrial chain 查看
例句: 按照能源密集、技术密集、资金密集、长产业链、高附加值的发展导向,有序建设煤炭深加工升级示范工程。 Following the approach of energy, technology and capital-intensive development with extensive industrial chain and high added value, the country will develop demonstration projects of upgraded downstream products in an orderly way.
热负荷 thermal loads 查看
例句: 鼓励在大中型城市和工业园区等热负荷集中的地区建设热电联产机组。 It encourages the construction of thermoelectricity co-generation units in large- and medium-sized cities and industrial parks where thermal loads are relatively concentrated.
长三角 Yangtze River Delta 查看
例句: 严格控制在环渤海、长三角、珠三角地区新增除“上大压小”和热电联产之外的燃煤机组。 It has imposed strict restrictions on the construction of new coal-fired power generating sets in the Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta areas, except those built for the purpose of "constructing large units and restricting small ones" and co-generation.
珠三角地区 Pearl River Delta 查看
例句: 严格控制在环渤海、长三角、珠三角地区新增除“上大压小”和热电联产之外的燃煤机组。 It has imposed strict restrictions on the construction of new coal-fired power generating sets in the Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta areas, except those built for the purpose of "constructing large units and restricting small ones" and co-generation.
珠三角 Pearl River Delta 查看
例句: 严格控制在环渤海、长三角、珠三角地区新增除“上大压小”和热电联产之外的燃煤机组。 It has imposed strict restrictions on the construction of new coal-fired power generating sets in the Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta areas, except those built for the purpose of "constructing large units and restricting small ones" and co-generation.
鄂尔多斯盆地 Ordos Basin 查看
例句: 推进原油增储稳产,稳步推进塔里木盆地、鄂尔多斯盆地等重点石油规模生产区勘探开发。加强老油田稳产改造,提高采收率。 The country will steadily increase crude oil output and reserves by means of stepping up efforts in prospecting for and exploiting oil in major oil-production areas, including those in the Tarim and Ordos basins, and improving renovation for stable yields and increasing the recovery ratio in old oilfields.
地质储量 geological reserve 查看
例句: 中国将加快煤层气勘探开发,增加探明地质储量,推进沁水盆地、鄂尔多斯盆地东缘等煤层气产业化基地建设。 It will speed up the exploration and exploitation of coal-bed gas, increase the proven geological reserves, and push forward the construction of industrial bases in the Qinshui Basin and eastern edge of the Ordos Basin.
页岩气 shale gas 查看
例句: 加快页岩气勘探开发,优选一批页岩气远景区和有利目标区。加快攻克页岩气勘探开发核心技术,建立页岩气勘探开发新机制,落实产业鼓励政策,完善配套基础设施,实现到2015年全国产量达到65亿立方米的总体目标,为页岩气未来的快速发展奠定坚实的基础。 In order to accelerate the development of shale gas, the country will select a group of prospective areas and favorable exploration target areas, intensify efforts to solve difficulties in core technology, set up a new development mechanism, implement incentive polices for the shale gas industry, and improve supporting facilities. China aims to increase its annual output of shale gas to 6.5 billion cu m by 2015, and lay a solid foundation for the future rapid development of shale gas., the country will select a group of prospective areas and favorable exploration target areas, intensify efforts to solve difficulties in core technology, set up a new development mechanism, implement incentive polices for the shale gas industry, and improve supporting facilities. China aims to increase its annual output of shale gas to 6.5 billion cu m by 2015, and lay a solid foundation for the future rapid development of shale gas. industry, and improve supporting facilities. China aims to increase its annual output of shale g
页岩油 shale oil 查看
例句: 加大页岩油、油砂等非常规油气资源勘探开发力度。 In addition, it will strengthen the development of shale oil, oil sand and other non-conventional oil and gas resources.
能源储运 energy storage and transportation 查看
例句: ——加强能源储运设施建设。 -- Enhancing the construction of energy storage and transportation facilities.
承载力 bearing capacity 查看
例句: 综合考虑目标市场,产业布局调整,煤电、风电、核电、天然气发电、抽水蓄能等电源点建设和进口能源,以及资源地的水和生态环境承载力等因素,统筹谋划能源输送通道建设。 When making a plan for the construction of energy output channels, China takes many factors into consideration, including target market, industrial restructuring, construction of plants that rely on coal, wind, nuclear energy, natural gas and pumped storage for electricity generation, imported energy resources, and bearing capacity of local water resources and the ecological environment.
管网建设 pipeline network construction 查看
例句: 加强原油、成品油和天然气主干管网建设,提高油气管输比例,完善区域运输网络,建设沿海大型油气接卸站。 The country will expedite the construction of networks of crude oil, product oil and natural gas pipelines, increase the proportion of oil and gas transported by pipelines, improve regional networks of oil and gas pipelines, and build large coastal loading and unloading stations.
储备体系 reserve system 查看
例句: 统筹资源储备和国家储备、商业储备,加强应急保障能力建设,完善原油、成品油、天然气和煤炭储备体系。 China will balance its resource reserves, both state reserves and commercial reserves, enhance its ability to extend emergency support, and improve the reserve system of crude oil, product oil, natural gas and coal.
能源示范工程 energy demonstration projects 查看
例句: 大力发展农村可再生能源,因地制宜开展绿色能源示范工程,到2015年建成200个绿色能源示范县、1000个太阳能示范村。 The Chinese government will put great efforts into developing renewable energy sources in rural areas, and launch various green energy demonstration projects in accordance with local conditions. By 2015, a total of 200 green-energy counties and 1,000 villages using solar energy will be set up as examples.
推广应用太阳能热水器 promotes the use of solar water heaters 查看
例句: 推广应用太阳能热水器。 In addition, the Chinese government promotes the use of solar water heaters around the country.
西北电网 northwest China grid 查看
例句: 加快“气化南疆”、“气化北疆”等民生能源工程,继续加强新疆与西北电网联网工程建设,推进“疆电外送”能源大通道建设,尽快将新疆资源优势转化为经济优势。 The energy projects to improve the people' s livelihood, such as the "Electrification of Southern Xinjiang" and "Electrification of Northern Xinjiang," will be sped up. The state will press on with the project to connect Xinjiang power grid to the northwest China grid so as to form an energy channel as soon as possible to get Xinjiang' s redundant electric power transmitted to other parts of China to generate more funds for the development of Xinjiang.
能源大通道 energy channel 查看
例句: 加快“气化南疆”、“气化北疆”等民生能源工程,继续加强新疆与西北电网联网工程建设,推进“疆电外送”能源大通道建设,尽快将新疆资源优势转化为经济优势。 The energy projects to improve the people' s livelihood, such as the "Electrification of Southern Xinjiang" and "Electrification of Northern Xinjiang," will be sped up. The state will press on with the project to connect Xinjiang power grid to the northwest China grid so as to form an energy channel as soon as possible to get Xinjiang' s redundant electric power transmitted to other parts of China to generate more funds for the development of Xinjiang.
城镇电网 urban grids 查看
例句: 加强城镇电网改造和升级,提高供电质量和可靠性。 The Chinese government will upgrade the urban grids to raise the quality and reliability of power supply in urban areas.
能源科技创新体系 energy technology innovation system 查看
例句: 中国将更加重视科技创新,加快建设和完善适合中国特点的、产学研一体化的能源科技创新体系。 It will establish and complete at full speed an energy technology innovation system that suits China's reality, and combines efforts of enterprises, colleges and research institutes.
国家能源科技创新体系 national energy technology innovation system 查看
例句: 2011年,中国发布《国家能源科技“十二五”规划》。这一首部能源科技专项规划,确定了勘探与开采、加工与转化、发电与输配电、新能源等四大重点技术领域,全面部署建设“重大技术研究、重大技术装备、重大示范工程及技术创新平台”四位一体的国家能源科技创新体系。 The National Energy Technology Program During the 12th Five-Year Plan Period, issued in 2011 as China's first scheme to improve its energy technology, has outlined the four key aspects of China's energy technology, namely, exploration and exploitation; processing and conversion; power generation, transmission and distribution; and new energy. The program also contains an overall plan to build a national energy technology innovation system that integrates research into key technology, manufacturing of key equipment, key demonstration projects and a technological innovation platform.
油气储运 oil and gas storage and transportation 查看
例句: 依托行业骨干企业和科研院所,以应用为导向,鼓励开展煤矿高效集约开采、非常规油气资源勘探开发、高效清洁发电、海上风电、太阳能热发电、先进油气储运、大容量高效率远距离输电等先进适用技术研发应用。 The Chinese government encourages major enterprises and research institutes in the industry to carry out studies in advanced and adaptive technologies, and put them into practical use, like high-efficiency and intensive coal mining technology, exploration and development technology of unconventional oil and gas resources, high-efficiency clean technology, offshore wind power technology, solar thermal power technology, advanced oil and gas storage and transportation technology, and high-capacity, high-efficiency and long-distance power transmission technology.
能源装备 energy equipment 查看
例句: ——推进能源装备技术进步。 -- Promoting progress of energy equipment technology.
认证体系 certification system 查看
例句: 依托重大技术装备工程,加强技术攻关,完善综合配套,建立健全能源装备标准、检测和认证体系,提高重大能源装备设计、制造和系统集成能力。 Based on major technological equipment projects, China strives to make technological breakthroughs, improve supporting facilities, set up and enforce technical standards for energy equipment, establish a complete testing and certification system, and raise its ability for energy equipment design, manufacturing and system integration.
装备设计 equipment design 查看
例句: 依托重大技术装备工程,加强技术攻关,完善综合配套,建立健全能源装备标准、检测和认证体系,提高重大能源装备设计、制造和系统集成能力。 Based on major technological equipment projects, China strives to make technological breakthroughs, improve supporting facilities, set up and enforce technical standards for energy equipment, establish a complete testing and certification system, and raise its ability for energy equipment design, manufacturing and system integration.
能源装备产业 energy equipment manufacturing industry 查看
例句: 加强对能源装备产业的规划引导,防止低水平重复建设。 The government will also strengthen planning and guidance for the energy equipment manufacturing industry to prevent redundant construction.
规划引导 planning and guidance 查看
例句: 加强对能源装备产业的规划引导,防止低水平重复建设。 The government will also strengthen planning and guidance for the energy equipment manufacturing industry to prevent redundant construction.
科技示范 technological demonstration 查看
例句: ——实施重大科技示范工程。 -- Launching major technological demonstration projects.
能源发展方式 energy development mode 查看
例句: 围绕能源发展方式转变和产业转型升级,在大型先进压水堆、高温气冷堆、煤层气开发利用、页岩气勘探开发、煤炭深加工、储能、智能电网等领域,加大资金、技术、政策支持力度,建设重大示范工程,推动科技成果向现实生产力转化。 Centering on the transformation of energy development mode and upgrading of the energy industry, the Chinese government will give more support in funding, technology and policy to launch major demonstration projects in such fields as large pressurized-water reactors, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, development and utilization of coal-bed gas, exploration and development of shale gas, and deep processing of coal, energy storage and smart power grids, thus promoting the application of technological and scientific research achievements in production.
智能电网 smart power grids 查看
例句: 围绕能源发展方式转变和产业转型升级,在大型先进压水堆、高温气冷堆、煤层气开发利用、页岩气勘探开发、煤炭深加工、储能、智能电网等领域,加大资金、技术、政策支持力度,建设重大示范工程,推动科技成果向现实生产力转化。 Centering on the transformation of energy development mode and upgrading of the energy industry, the Chinese government will give more support in funding, technology and policy to launch major demonstration projects in such fields as large pressurized-water reactors, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, development and utilization of coal-bed gas, exploration and development of shale gas, and deep processing of coal, energy storage and smart power grids, thus promoting the application of technological and scientific research achievements in production.
顶层设计 top design 查看
例句: 中国将坚定地推进能源领域改革,加强顶层设计和总体规划,加快构建有利于能源科学发展的体制机制,改善能源发展环境,推进能源生产和利用方式变革,保障国家能源安全。 China will resolutely implement reform in the energy sector, strengthen top design and overall planning, accelerate the pace of building a system and mechanism for the scientific development of the energy industry, ameliorate the environment for energy development, bring about a revolution in energy production and utilization, and safeguard China's energy security.
民间资本 private capital 查看
例句: 凡是列入国家能源规划的项目,除法律法规明确禁止的以外,均向民间资本开放。 All projects listed in the national energy program, unless forbidden by laws or regulations, are open to private capital.
煤炭加工 coal processing 查看
例句: 鼓励民间资本参与能源资源勘探开发、石油和天然气管网建设、电力建设,鼓励民间资本发展煤炭加工转化和炼油产业,继续支持民间资本全面进入新能源和可再生能源产业。 The Chinese government encourages private capital to participate in the exploration and development of energy resources, oil and natural gas pipeline network construction and the electric power industry, encourages the involvement of private capital in coal processing and oil refining, and supports the entry of private capital into the new energy and renewable energy fields.
开发权 development right 查看
例句: 加强和规范煤炭勘探开发权管理,逐步取消重点合同煤和市场煤价格双轨制,完善煤炭与煤层气协调发展机制。 The Chinese government will intensify and regulate the administration of coal exploration and development rights, gradually eliminate the double-track price system for contracted coal supply and market coal supply, and create a mechanism to balance the development of coal and coal-bed gas.
能源行业 energy sector 查看
例句: ——加强能源行业管理。 -- Tightening administration of the energy sector.
行政审批 administrative examination and approval 查看
例句: 减少政府对微观事务的干预,简化行政审批事项。加强对垄断行为和不正当竞争行为的监管,建立公开、公平、科学、有效的监管体系。 The Chinese government will reduce its intervention in specific matters and simplify administrative examination and approval, while intensify supervision over monopoly and unfair competition by establishing an open, fair, scientific and effective supervision mechanism.
国际能源署 World Energy Agency 查看
例句: 在多边合作方面,中国是亚太经济合作组织能源工作组、二十国集团、上海合作组织、世界能源理事会、国际能源论坛等组织和机制的正式成员或重要参与方,是能源宪章的观察员国,与国际能源署、石油输出国组织等机构保持着密切联系。 China is also a member of or important participant in many multilateral organizations and mechanisms, including the energy working group of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Organization, Group of 20, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, World Energy Council and International Energy Forum. It is an observer of the Energy Charter, and maintains close relations with such international organizations as the World Energy Agency and the Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries.
供应渠道 supply channel 查看
例句: 中国企业对外投资合作开发的能源资源,90%以上都在当地销售,增加了全球能源市场供应,促进了供应渠道的多元化。 Ninety percent of Chinese enterprise-invested energy resources abroad are sold locally, thus increasing and diversifying supplies in the global energy market.
期货贸易 futures trade 查看
例句: 综合运用期货贸易、长协贸易、转口贸易、易货贸易等方式,推进贸易方式多元化。 It will diversify the modes of trade and comprehensively use such methods as futures trade, long-term agreements, entrepot and barter trade.
货币体系 monetary system 查看
例句: 积极参与全球能源治理,加强与世界各国的沟通与合作,共同应对国际货币体系、过度投机、垄断经营等因素对能源市场的影响,维护国际能源市场及价格的稳定。 China will actively participate in global energy management. It will intensify exchanges and cooperation with other countries, addressing together the impact of the international monetary system, excessive speculation and energy market monopoly, thereby maintaining the stability of international energy market and energy price.
信息交流 information exchanges 查看
例句: 国际社会应进一步密切双多边关系,加强在提高能效、节能环保、能源管理、能源政策等方面的对话交流,完善国际能源市场监测和应急机制,深化在信息交流、人员培训、协调行动等方面的合作。 The international community should further cement its bilateral and multilateral ties; increase dialogues and exchanges in the fields of efficient use of energy, energy conservation, environmental protection, energy management and energy policy; promote monitoring and emergency response mechanisms for the global energy market; and deepen the cooperation in the fields of information exchanges, personnel training and coordination.
治理机制 management mechanism 查看
例句: 公平合理的国际能源治理机制是维护世界能源市场稳定的重要条件。 A fair and rational international energy management mechanism is a prerequisite for a stable global energy market.
厂网分离 power production has been separated from power transmission 查看
例句: 电力工业实现政企分开、厂网分离,监管体系初步建立。 In the electric power industry, government administrative functions and enterprise management have been separated, as has power production from power transmission, and a supervisory system has taken shape.
珠三角(地区) Pearl River Delta 查看
例句: 严格控制在环渤海、长三角、珠三角地区新增除“上大压小”和热电联产之外的燃煤机组。 It has imposed strict restrictions on the construction of new coal-fired power generating sets in the Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta areas, except those built for the purpose of "constructing large units and restricting small ones" and co-generation.
能耗定额 energy consumption quota 查看
例句: 推进北方采暖地区既有建筑供热计量和节能改造,实施“节能暖房”工程,改造供热老旧管网,实行供热计量收费和能耗定额管理。 It carries forward heat metering and energy efficiency renovations on existing residential heating systems in the northern regions of China, builds energy-saving greenhouses, improves the old heat-supply network, and practices metered heat-supply charging and energy consumption quota management.
大型煤炭基地 large coal mining bases -
非常规油气 non-conventional oil and gas resources -
发展海上发电 develop offshore wind farms -
成品油 product oil -
能源普遍服务 universal energy service / the overall level of energy service -
耗能产品 energy-consuming products -
1兆瓦 1000 KW -
沼气 biogas -
循环流化床 circulating fluidized bed (CFB) -
煤炭气化及加工转化 coal gasification, processing and conversion -
整体煤气化联合循环 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) -
碳捕捉与利用封存 carbon capture, utilization and storage -
炼油集聚区 refining cluster areas -
余热余压 surplus heat and pressure -
单位产品能耗 Per-unit product energy consumption -
《国家能源科技“十二五”规划》 National Energy Technology Program During the 12th Five-Year Plan Period -
波浪能 wave energy -
干热岩 hot dry rocks -
循环经济 circular economy -
小火电机组 small thermal power units -
热电联产 simultaneous generation of heat and power -
寿命周期 life circle -
“上大压小” "constructing large units and restricting small ones" -
消除能源贫困 eliminate energy poverty -
油气接卸站 loading and unloading stations -
目标责任制 a target responsibility system -
问责制 an accountability system -
总发电量 total power output -
风电开发布局 the development layout of wind power -
粮棉主产区 major producing areas of grain and cotton -
农作物秸秆 crop stalks -
粮食加工剩余物 grain-processing residues -
蔗渣 bagasse -
新型工业化道路 take a new road to industrialization -
油气田采收率 recovery ratio of oilfields -
石化 petrochemicals -
化工 chemical engineering -
余热利用 surplus heat utilization -
建筑节能 the construction of energy-saving buildings -
能源结构 energy consumption mix -
“气化南疆” "Electrification of Southern Xinjiang" -
“气化北疆” "Electrification of Northern Xinjiang" -
强制采购 compulsory procurement -
节能改造 energy efficiency renovations -
能耗定额管理 energy consumption quota management -
供热计量收费 metered heat-supply charging -
节能融资机制 an energy-saving mechanism -
高温气冷堆 high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) -
合同能源管理 contract-based energy management -
抽水蓄能 pumped storage for electricity generation -
大功率高参数超超临界机组 high-capacity, high-parameter and ultra-supercritical generating units -
燃气轮机 gas turbines -
三代核电 third-generation nuclear power -
可再生能源发电机组 renewable energy generating units -
电力需求侧管理 power demand-side management (DSM) -
太阳能集热面积 a total solar heat collection area of -
水电站 hydraulic power plant -
流化床 circulating fluidized bed (CFB) -
磁约束核聚变 magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) -
高硫高灰分煤炭 high-sulfur and high-ash coal -
分布式能源系统 distributed energy systems (DES) -
价格波动 price fluctuations 查看
例句: 国际能源市场价格波动增加了保障国内能源供应难度。 Price fluctuations in the international energy market make it more difficult to guarantee domestic energy supply.
市场占有率 market share 查看
例句: 推广太阳能热利用、沼气等成熟技术,提高市场占有率。 It will spread the latest technologies for the utilization of solar energy, methane and other renewable energy sources, and increase their market shares.
新时代的中国能源发展 Energy in China’s New Era -
  一、走新时代能源高质量发展之路 I. Developing High-Quality Energy in the New Era  -
  二、能源发展取得历史性成就 II. Historic Achievements in Energy Development  -
  三、全面推进能源消费方式变革 III. An All-Round Effort to Reform Energy Consumption -
  四、建设多元清洁的能源供应体系 IV. Building a Clean and Diversified Energy Supply System -
  五、发挥科技创新第一动力作用 V. Leveraging the Role of Innovation as the Primary Driver of Development  -
  六、全面深化能源体制改革 VI. Deeper Reform of the Energy System in All Areas  -
  七、全方位加强能源国际合作 VII. Strengthening International Energy Cooperation Across the Board  -
  能源是人类文明进步的基础和动力,攸关国计民生和国家安全,关系人类生存和发展,对于促进经济社会发展、增进人民福祉至关重要。 Energy is the foundation and driving force for the progress of human civilization. It matters to the economy, to people’s lives, to national security, and to the survival and development of humanity. It is of vital importance in advancing social and economic development and public welfare. -
  新中国成立以来,在中国共产党领导下,中国自力更生、艰苦奋斗,逐步建成较为完备的能源工业体系。改革开放以来,中国适应经济社会快速发展需要,推进能源全面、协调、可持续发展,成为世界上最大的能源生产消费国和能源利用效率提升最快的国家。 Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), a relatively complete energy industry system has been established. This has largely been achieved through self-reliance and hard work. Since the launch of the reform and opening-up policy in 1978, to adapt to the rapid development of the economy and society, China has promoted the development of energy in a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable manner. Today, China has become -
  中共十八大以来,中国发展进入新时代,中国的能源发展也进入新时代。习近平主席提出“四个革命、一个合作”能源安全新战略,为新时代中国能源发展指明了方向,开辟了中国特色能源发展新道路。中国坚持创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,以推动高质量发展为主题,以深化供给侧结构性改革为主线,全面推进能源消费方式变革,构建多元清洁的能源供应体系,实施创新驱动发展战略,不断深化能源体制改革,持续推进能源领域国际合作,中国能源进入高质量发展新阶段。 Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has entered a new era, as has its energy development. In 2014, President Xi Jinping put forward a new energy security strategy featuring Four Reforms and One Cooperation, pointing out the direction for the quality growth of the energy industry with Chinese characteristics in the new era. China upholds the vision of innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development with focus on high quality and restructuring of the supply side. It has been workin -
  生态兴则文明兴。面对气候变化、环境风险挑战、能源资源约束等日益严峻的全球问题,中国树立人类命运共同体理念,促进经济社会发展全面绿色转型,在努力推动本国能源清洁低碳发展的同时,积极参与全球能源治理,与各国一道寻求加快推进全球能源可持续发展新道路。习近平主席在第七十五届联合国大会一般性辩论上宣布,中国将提高国家自主贡献力度,采取更加有力的政策和措施,二氧化碳排放力争于2030年前达到峰值,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和。新时代中国的能源发展,为中国经济社会持续健康发展提供有力支撑,也为维护世界能源安全、应对全球气候变化、促进世界经济增长作出积极贡献 。 A thriving civilization calls for a good eco-environment. Facing increasingly severe global problems such as climate change, environmental risks and challenges, and energy and resource constraints, China embraces the vision of a global community of shared future and accelerates its transformation towards green and low-carbon development in economy and society. In addition to promoting clean and low-carbon energy use domestically, China has been an active participant in global energy governance, exploring a -
  为介绍新时代中国能源发展成就,全面阐述中国推进能源革命的主要政策和重大举措,特发布本白皮书。 The Chinese government is publishing this white paper to provide a full picture of China’s achievements in its energy development and its major policies and measures for energy reform. -
  一、走新时代能源高质量发展之路 I. Developing High-Quality Energy in the New Era -
  新时代的中国能源发展,积极适应国内国际形势的新发展新要求,坚定不移走高质量发展新道路,更好服务经济社会发展,更好服务美丽中国、健康中国建设,更好推动建设清洁美丽世界。 China’s energy strategy in the new era endeavors to adapt to domestic and international changes and meet new requirements. China will continue to develop high-quality energy to better serve economic and social progress, support the Beautiful China and Healthy China initiatives, and build a clean and beautiful world. -
  (一)能源安全新战略 1. The New Energy Security Strategy -
  新时代的中国能源发展,贯彻“四个革命、一个合作”能源安全新战略。 In its energy plans for the new era, China has adopted a new strategy featuring Four Reforms and One Cooperation. -
  ——推动能源消费革命,抑制不合理能源消费。坚持节能优先方针,完善能源消费总量管理,强化能耗强度 控制,把节能贯穿于经济社会发展全过程和各领域。坚定调整产业结构,高度重视城镇化节能,推动形成绿色低碳交通运输体系。在全社会倡导勤俭节约的消费观,培育节约能源和使用绿色能源的生产生活方式,加快形成能源节约型社会。 – One reform to improve the energy consumption structure by containing unnecessary consumption. China is determined to carry out the principle of prioritizing energy conservation, and has tightened the control of total energy consumption and energy use intensity, and enforced energy conservation in all areas of social and economic development. It resolves to adjust its industrial structure. It emphasizes energy conservation in the process of urbanization, and works to develop a green and low-carbon transpor -
  ——推动能源供给革命,建立多元供应体系。坚持绿色发展导向,大力推进化石能源清洁高效利用,优先发展可再生能源,安全有序发展核电,加快提升非化石能源在能源供应中的比重。大力提升油气勘探开发力度,推动油气增储上产。推进煤电油气产供储销体系建设,完善能源输送网络和储存设施,健全能源储运和调峰应急体系,不断提升能源供应的质量和安全保障能力。 – One reform to build a more diversified energy supply structure. In the direction of green development, China has been vigorously promoting the clean and efficient utilization of fossil energy, prioritizing the development of renewable energy, developing nuclear power in a safe and orderly manner, and raising the proportion of non-fossil energy in the energy supply structure. China has intensified efforts for the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas resources, to increase reserve and production volu -
  ——推动能源技术革命,带动产业升级。深入实施创新驱动发展战略,构建绿色能源技术创新体系,全面提升能源科技和装备水平。加强能源领域基础研究以及共性技术、颠覆性技术创新,强化原始创新和集成创新。着力推动数字化、大数据、人工智能技术与能源清洁高效开发利用技术的融合创新,大力发展智慧能源技术,把能源技术及其关联产业培育成带动产业升级的新增长点。 – One reform to improve energy technologies to upgrade the industry. China is implementing the innovation-driven development strategy, building a system that nurtures innovation in green energy technologies, and upgrading energy technologies and equipment in an all-round way. China has strengthened basic research on energy, innovation in generic and disruptive technologies, and original and integrated innovation. China has started to integrate digital, big-data and AI technologies with technologies for clea -
  ——推动能源体制革命,打通能源发展快车道。坚定不移推进能源领域市场化改革,还原能源商品属性,形成统一开放、竞争有序的能源市场。推进能源价格改革,形成主要由市场决定能源价格的机制。健全能源法治体系,创新能源科学管理模式,推进“放管服”改革,加强规划和政策引导,健全行业监管体系。 – One reform to optimize the energy system for faster growth of the energy sector. China is determined to promote energy market reform, to marketize energy commodities and form a unified and open market with orderly competition. China is furthering energy pricing reform, to create a mechanism in which the market determines the price. China has been working to modernize its law-based energy governance system, developing new models of efficient energy management, and pushing forward reforms to streamline gove -
  ——全方位加强国际合作,实现开放条件下能源安全。坚持互利共赢、平等互惠原则,全面扩大开放,积极融入世界。推动共建“一带一路”能源绿色可持续发展,促进能源基础设施互联互通。积极参与全球能源治理,加强能源领域国际交流合作,畅通能源国际贸易、促进能源投资便利 化,共同构建能源国际合作新格局,维护全球能源市场稳定和共同安全。 – Comprehensive cooperation with other countries to realize energy security in an open environment. Under the principle of equality and mutual benefit, China is opening its door wider to the world. China promotes green and sustainable energy under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), and endeavors to improve energy infrastructure connectivity. China has been an active participant in global energy governance, increasing energy cooperation and exchanges with other countries, and facilitating international trad -
  (二)新时代能源政策理念 2. Guiding Philosophies for Energy Policies in the New Era -
  ——坚持以人民为中心。牢固树立能源发展为了人民、依靠人民、服务人民的理念,把保障和改善民生用能、贫困人口用能作为能源发展的优先目标,加强能源民生基础设施和公共服务能力建设,提高能源普遍服务水平。把推动能源发展和脱贫攻坚有机结合,实施能源扶贫工程,发挥能源基础设施和能源供应服务在扶贫中的基础性作用。 – Putting people first. China upholds the principle of energy development for the people, by the people and answerable to the people. Its primary goal is to ensure energy supply for people’s life and to ensure that the poverty-stricken population have access to electricity. To this end, China has been improving energy infrastructure related to people’s life and public services, and has integrated energy development with poverty eradication. China has launched programs on poverty reduction through energy sup -
  ——坚持清洁低碳导向。树立人与自然和谐共生理念,把清洁低碳作为能源发展的主导方向,推动能源绿色生产和消费,优化能源生产布局和消费结构,加快提高清洁能源和非化石能源消费比重,大幅降低二氧化碳排放强度和污染物排放水平,加快能源绿色低碳转型,建设美丽中国。 – Promoting a clean and low-carbon energy. China embraces the vision of harmonious coexistence between humanity and nature, directing its efforts towards clean and low-carbon energy. China promotes green energy production and consumption, and has improved the relevant structures accordingly . China is increasing the proportion of clean energy and non-fossil energy at the consumption stage, reducing carbon dioxide emissions and pollutant discharge by large margins, and working hard to accelerate its transfor -
  ——坚持创新核心地位。把提升能源科技水平作为能源转型发展的突破口,加快能源科技自主创新步伐,加强国家能源战略科技力量,发挥企业技术创新主体作用,推进产学研深度融合,推动能源技术从引进跟随向自主创新转变,形成能源科技创新上下游联动的一体化创新和全产业链协同技术发展模式。 – Ensuring the core status of innovation. China is focusing on transforming the energy sector through technical advancement. China is actively promoting independent innovation in energy technolog2ies, and increasing sci-tech input in the national energy development. With enterprises playing a key role in innovation, China has been promoting close collaboration along the energy industrial chain between enterprises, universities and research institutes, to reduce technology imports and boost independent innov -
  ——坚持以改革促发展。充分发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用,深入推进能源行业竞争性环节市场化改革,发挥市场机制作用,建设高标准能源市场体系。加强能源发展战略和规划的导向作用,健全能源法治体系和全行业监管体系,进一步完善支持能源绿色低碳转型的财税金融体制,释放能源发展活力,为能源高质量发展提供支撑。 – Pursuing development through reform. China will fully leverage the decisive role of the market in allocating energy resources, and ensure the government better play its part in this regard. It is endeavoring to advance market-oriented reform in the competitive areas of the energy sector, further display the role of the market mechanism, and build a high-quality energy market system. China has highlighted the guiding role of its energy strategy and planning, formed a law-based governance system and a regul -
  ——坚持推动构建人类命运共同体。面对日趋严峻的全球气候变化形势,树立人类命运共同体意识,深化全球能源治理合作,加快推动以清洁低碳为导向的新一轮能源变革,共同促进全球能源可持续发展,共建清洁美丽世界。 – Building a global community of shared future. Confronted by the severe impact of climate change, China advocates a global community of shared future, greater international cooperation on energy governance, and a new round of energy reform directed towards clean and low-carbon development. China has joined other countries in seeking sustainable energy and building a clean and beautiful world. -
  二、能源发展取得历史性成就 II. Historic Achievements in Energy Development -
  中国坚定不移推进能源革命,能源生产和利用方式发生重大变革,能源发展取得历史性成就。能源生产和消费结构不断优化,能源利用效率显著提高,生产生活用能条件明显改善,能源安全保障能力持续增强,为服务经济高质量发展、打赢脱贫攻坚战和全面建成小康社会提供了重要支撑。 China is committed to driving an energy revolution. As a result, major changes have taken place in the production and use of energy and historic achievements have been realized in energy development. Energy production and consumption are being optimized, energy efficiency has increased significantly, and energy use has become more convenient for both work and life. China’s capacity to ensure energy security has been strengthened. All this provides important support to quality economic development, victory i -
  (一)能源供应保障能力不断增强 1. Growing Capacity to Ensure Energy Supply -
  基本形成了煤、油、气、电、核、新能源和可再生能源多轮驱动的能源生产体系。初步核算,2019年中国一次能源生产总量达39.7亿吨标准煤,为世界能源生产第一大国。煤炭仍是保障能源供应的基础能源,2012年以来原煤年产量保持在34.1亿-39.7亿吨。努力保持原油生产稳定,2012年以来原油年产量保持在1.9亿-2.1亿吨。天然气产量明显提升,从2012年的1106亿立方米增长到2019年的1762亿立方米。电力供应能力持续增强,累计发电装机容量20.1亿千瓦,2019年发电量7.5万亿千瓦时,较2012年分别增长75%、50%。可再生能源开发利用规模快速扩大,水电、风电、光伏发电累计装机容量均居世界首位。截至2019年底,在运在建核电装机容量6593万千瓦,居世界第二,在建核电装机容量世界第一。 A diversified energy production infrastructure consisting of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, nuclear energy, new energy and renewable energy is in place. Preliminary calculations show that China’s primary energy production in 2019 reached 3.97 billion tons of standard coal, making it the world’s largest energy producer. -
能源输送能力显著提高。建成天然气主干管道超过8.7万公里、石油主干管道5.5万公里、330千伏及以上输电线路长度30.2万公里。 Coal remains the basic energy source. Since 2012, the annual production of raw coal has ranged between 3.41 and 3.97 billion tons. Crude oil production remains stable. Since 2012, the annual production of crude oil has ranged between 190 and 210 million tons. The production of natural gas has increased notably, from 110.6 billion cu m in 2012 to 176.2 billion cubic meters in 2019. China’s electricity supply capacity has risen to a cumulative installed capacity of 2.01 billion kW in 2019, up 75 percent since -
能源储备体系不断健全。建成9个国家石油储备基地,天然气产供储销体系建设取得初步成效,煤炭生产运输协同保障体系逐步完善,电力安全稳定运行达到世界先进水平,能源综合应急保障能力显著增强。 Energy transport capacity has risen remarkably. China has built natural gas trunk lines measuring over 87,000 km, oil trunk lines totaling 55,000 km, and 302,000 km of electricity transmission lines of 330 kv or more. -
(二)能源节约和消费结构优化成效显著 2. Remarkable Achievements in Optimizing Energy Conservation and Consumption -
  能源利用效率显著提高。2012年以来单位国内生产总值能耗累计降低24.4%,相当于减少能源消费12.7亿吨标准煤。2012年至2019年,以能源消费年均2.8%的增长支撑了国民经济年均7%的增长。 Significant improvement has been made in energy efficiency. Since 2012, energy consumption per unit of GDP has been reduced by 24.4 percent, equivalent to 1.27 billion tons of standard coal. From 2012 to 2019, China saw an average annual growth of 7 percent in the economy, while annual energy consumption rose by only 2.8 percent. -
  能源消费结构向清洁低碳加快转变。初步核算,2019年煤炭消费占能源消费总量比重为57.7%,比2012年降低10.8个百分点;天然气、水电、核电、风电等清洁能源消费量占能源消费总量比重为23.4%,比2012年提高8.9个百分点;非化石能源占能源消费总量比重达15.3%,比2012年提高5.6个百分点,已提前完成到2020年非化石能源消费比重达到15%左右的目标。新能源汽车快速发展,2019年新增量和保有量分别达120万辆和380万辆,均占全球总量一半以上;截至2019年底,全国电动汽车充电基础设施达120万处,建成世界最大规模充电网络,有效促进了交通领域能效提高和能源消费结构优化。 The shift towards clean and low-carbon energy consumption is accelerating. Preliminary calculations show that in 2019, coal consumption accounted for 57.7 percent of total energy consumption, a decrease of 10.8 percentage points from 2012; the consumption of clean energy (natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, wind power) accounted for 23.4 percent of total energy consumption, an increase of 8.9 percentage points over 2012. Non-fossil energy accounted for 15.3 percent of total energy consumption, up 5.6 pe -
(三)能源科技水平快速提升 3. Rapid Improvements in Energy Technology -
  持续推进能源科技创新,能源技术水平不断提高,技术进步成为推动能源发展动力变革的基本力量。建立完备的水电、核电、风电、太阳能发电等清洁能源装备制造产业链,成功研发制造全球最大单机容量100万千瓦水电机组,具备最大单机容量达10兆瓦的全系列风电机组制造能力,不断刷新光伏电池转换效率世界纪录。建成若干应用先进三代技术的核电站,新一代核电、小型堆等多项核能利用技术取得明显突破。油气勘探开发技术能力持续提高,低渗原油及稠油高效开发、新一代复合化学驱等技术世界领先,页岩油气勘探开发技术和装备水平大幅提升,天然气水合物试采取得成功。发展煤炭绿色高效智能开采技术,大型煤矿采煤机械化程度达98%,掌握煤制油气产业化技术。建成规模最大、安全可靠、全球领先的电网,供电可靠性位居世界前列。“互联网+”智慧能源、储能、区块链、综合能源服务等一大批能源新技术、新模式、新业态正在蓬勃兴起。 China continues to pursue technological innovation in the energy sector. Its energy technologies are continuously improving, and technological progress has become a basic driver for the transformation of the energy industry. There are complete industrial chains for the manufacturing of clean energy equipment for hydropower, nuclear power, wind power, and solar power. China has successfully developed and manufactured the world’s largest single-unit hydropower generators, with a capacity of 1 million kW; it i -
  (四)能源与生态环境友好性明显改善 4. Significant Progress in Eco-Environmental Friendliness of the Energy Sector -
  中国把推进能源绿色发展作为促进生态文明建设的重要举措,坚决打好污染防治攻坚战、打赢蓝天保卫战。煤炭清洁开采和利用水平大幅提升,采煤沉陷区治理、绿色矿山建设取得显著成效。落实修订后的《大气污染防治法》,加大燃煤和其他能源污染防治力度。推动国家大气污染防治重点区域内新建、改建、扩建用煤项目实施煤炭等量或减量替代。能源绿色发展显著推动空气质量改善,二氧化硫、氮氧化物和烟尘排放量大幅下降。能源绿色发展对碳排放强度下降起到重要作用,2019年碳排放强度比2005年下降48.1%,超过了2020年碳排放强度比2005年下降40%-45%的目标,扭转了二氧化碳排放快速增长的局面。 China sees green energy as an important measure to enhance eco-environmental progress, and resolutely fights pollution, especially air pollution. Its capabilities in clean coal mining and utilization have greatly improved, and significant results have been achieved in regulating coal mining subsidence areas and building green mines. It has amended the Law on Air Pollution Prevention and Control to strengthen the prevention and control of pollution from coal and other energy sources, and ensure that more env -
 (五)能源治理机制持续完善 5. Continuous Improvement in the Energy Governance Mechanism -
  全面提升能源领域市场化水平,营商环境不断优化,市场活力明显增强,市场主体和人民群众办事创业更加便利。进一步放宽能源领域外资市场准入,民间投资持续壮大,投资主体更加多元。发用电计划有序放开、交易机构独立规范运行、电力市场建设深入推进。加快推进油气勘查开采市场放开与矿业权流转、管网运营机制改革、原油进口动态管理等改革,完善油气交易中心建设。推进能源价格市场化,进一步放开竞争性环节价格,初步建立电力、油气网络环节科学定价制度。协同推进能源改革和法治建设,能源法律体系不断完善。覆盖战略、规划、政策、标准、监管、服务的能源治理机制基本形成。 China is making every effort to ensure that the market plays a greater role in the energy sector. Now, in a better business environment and a more viable market, market entities and individuals enjoy more convenient services and find it easier to start businesses. Market access for foreign capital in the energy sector has been extended, private investment is growing, and investment entities have become more diverse. Policies on power generation and consumption plans have been relaxed in an orderly manner, t -
  (六)能源惠民利民成果丰硕 6. Solid Benefits for People’s Lives -
  把保障和改善民生作为能源发展的根本出发点,保障城乡居民获得基本能源供应和服务,在全面建成小康社会和乡村振兴中发挥能源供应的基础保障作用。2016年至2019年,农网改造升级总投资达8300亿元,农村平均停电时间降低至15小时左右,农村居民用电条件明显改善。2013年至2015年,实施解决无电人口用电行动计划,2015年底完成全部人口都用上电的历史性任务。实施光伏扶贫工程等能源扶贫工程建设,优先在贫困地区进行能源开发项目布局,实施能源惠民工程,促进了贫困地区经济发展和贫困人口收入增加。完善天然气利用基础设施建设,扩大天然气供应区域,提高民生用气保障能力。北方地区清洁取暖取得明显进展,改善了城乡居民用能条件和居住环境。截至2019年底,北方地区清洁取暖面积达116亿平方米,比2016年增加51亿平方米。 Ensuring public wellbeing and improving people’s lives is China’s fundamental goal in energy development. China is ensuring that urban and rural residents have access to basic energy supply and services, as a fundamental element in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and supporting rural revitalization. From 2016 to 2019, the total investment in transforming and upgrading rural power grids reached RMB830 billion, and the average power outage time in rural areas was reduced to about 15 h -
三、全面推进能源消费方式变革 III. An All-Round Effort to Reform Energy Consumption -
  坚持节约资源和保护环境的基本国策,坚持节能优先方针,树立节能就是增加资源、减少污染、造福人类的理念,把节能贯穿于经济社会发展全过程和各领域。 China perseveres with its fundamental national policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment. Prioritizing energy saving, it understands that energy conservation means increasing resources, reducing pollution, and benefiting humanity, and exercises energy saving throughout the whole process and in all areas of economic and social development. -
  (一)实行能耗双控制度 1. Implementing a Dual Control System of Total Energy Consumption and Energy Intensity -
  实行能源消费总量和强度双控制度,按省、自治区、直辖市行政区域设定能源消费总量和强度控制目标,对各级地方政府进行监督考核。把节能指标纳入生态文明、绿色发展等绩效评价指标体系,引导转变发展理念。对重点用能单位分解能耗双控目标,开展目标责任评价考核,推动重点用能单位加强节能管理。 A dual control system of total energy consumption and energy intensity is in place. China sets the targets of total energy consumption and energy intensity for different provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government and applies oversight and checks over the performance of local governments at all levels. It has introduced the energy-saving index into the performance evaluation system of eco-environmental progress and green development, to guide the transformation of -
  (二)健全节能法律法规和标准体系 2. Improving Laws, Regulations and Standards for Energy Conservation -
  修订实施《节约能源法》,建立完善工业、建筑、交通等重点领域和公共机构节能制度,健全节能监察、能源效率标识、固定资产投资项目节能审查、重点用能单位节能管理等配套法律制度。强化标准引领约束作用,健全节能标准体系,实施百项能效标准推进工程,发布实施340多项国家节能标准,其中近200项强制性标准,实现主要高耗能行业和终端用能产品全覆盖。加强节能执法监督,强化事中事后监管,严格执法问责,确保节能法律法规和强制性标准有效落实。 China has revised the Energy Conservation Law. It has put in place an energy-saving system in key areas including industry, construction and transport as well as in public institutions. It continues to improve the supporting legal institutions for energy conservation supervision, energy-efficiency labeling, energy-saving checks on fixed assets investment projects, and energy conservation management of key energy consumers. It has strengthened standard-setting as a constraining factor and improved energy-sav -
  (三)完善节能低碳激励政策 3. Improving Energy-Saving and Low-Carbon Incentives -
  实行促进节能的企业所得税、增值税优惠政策。鼓励进口先进节能技术、设备,控制出口耗能高、污染重的产品。健全绿色金融体系,利用能效信贷、绿色债券等支持节能项目。创新完善促进绿色发展的价格机制,实施差别电价、峰谷分时电价、阶梯电价、阶梯气价等,完善环保电价政策,调动市场主体和居民节能的积极性。在浙江等4省市开展用能权有偿使用和交易试点,在北京等7省市开展碳排放权交易试点。大力推行合同能源管理,鼓励节能技术和经营模式创新,发展综合能源服务。加强电力需求侧管理,推行电力需求侧响应的市场化机制,引导节约、有序、合理用电。建立能效“领跑者”制度,推动终端用能产品、高耗能行业、公共机构提升能效水平。 Corporate income tax and value-added tax incentives are awarded to energy-saving businesses. China encourages the imports of energy-saving technologies and equipment, and controls the exports of energy-intensive and heavy-polluting products. China is improving the green financial system, and makes use of energy efficiency credits and green bonds to support energy conservation projects. It is exploring new ground in pricing to advance green development. Differential pricing, time-of-use pricing, and tiered p -
  (四)提升重点领域能效水平 4. Improving Energy Efficiency in Key Areas -
  积极优化产业结构,大力发展低能耗的先进制造业、高新技术产业、现代服务业,推动传统产业智能化、清洁化改造。推动工业绿色循环低碳转型升级,全面实施绿色制造,建立健全节能监察执法和节能诊断服务机制,开展能效对标达标。提升新建建筑节能标准,深化既有建筑节能改造,优化建筑用能结构。构建节能高效的综合交通运输体系,推进交通运输用能清洁化,提高交通运输工具能效水平。全面建设节约型公共机构,促进公共机构为全社会节能工作作出表率。构建市场导向的绿色技术创新体系,促进绿色技术研发、转化与推广。推广国家重点节能低碳技术、工业节能技术装备、交通运输行业重点节能低碳技术等。推动全民节能,引导树立勤俭节约的消费观,倡导简约适度、绿色低碳的生活方式,反对奢侈浪费和不合理消费。 China is doing all it can to optimize the industrial structure, develop advanced manufacturing, high-tech industry and modern services with low energy consumption, and promote the intelligent and clean transformation of traditional industries. China has sped up the transformation to green, recycling and low-carbon industry, and implemented green manufacturing on all fronts; put in place monitoring, law enforcement and diagnostic mechanisms for energy conservation, and carried out energy efficiency benchmark -
(五)推动终端用能清洁化 5. Promoting Clean Final Energy Consumption -
  以京津冀及周边地区、长三角、珠三角、汾渭平原等地区为重点,实施煤炭消费减量替代和散煤综合治理,推广清洁高效燃煤锅炉,推行天然气、电力和可再生能源等替代低效和高污染煤炭的使用。制定财政、价格等支持政策,积极推进北方地区冬季清洁取暖,促进大气环境质量改善。推进终端用能领域以电代煤、以电代油,推广新能源汽车、热泵、电窑炉等新型用能方式。加强天然气基础设施建设与互联互通,在城镇燃气、工业燃料、燃气发电、交通运输等领域推进天然气高效利用。大力推进天然气热电冷联供的供能方式,推进分布式可再生能源发展,推行终端用能领域多能协同和能源综合梯级利用。 Focusing on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its surrounding areas, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Fenwei Plain (the Fenhe Plain, the Weihe Plain and their surroundings in the Yellow River Basin), China is working to reduce and find substitutes for coal consumption, and taking comprehensive measures to control the use of bulk coal. It is promoting clean and efficient coal-fired furnaces, and replacing inefficient and highly-polluting coal with natural gas, electricity and renewab -
 四、建设多元清洁的能源供应体系 IV. Building a Clean and Diversified Energy Supply System -
  立足基本国情和发展阶段,确立生态优先、绿色发展的导向,坚持在保护中发展、在发展中保护,深化能源供给侧结构性改革,优先发展非化石能源,推进化石能源清洁高效开发利用,健全能源储运调峰体系,促进区域多能互补协调发展。 Proceeding from its basic national conditions and current stage of development, China gives priority to eco-environmental conservation and pursues green development. It seeks growth while protecting the environment, and believes that a sound eco-environment better facilitates growth. It focuses on supply-side structural reform in the energy sector – giving priority to non-fossil energy, promoting the clean and efficient development and utilization of fossil energy, improving the energy storage, transportati -
  (一)优先发展非化石能源 1. Prioritizing Non-Fossil Energy -
  开发利用非化石能源是推进能源绿色低碳转型的主要途径。中国把非化石能源放在能源发展优先位置,大力推进低碳能源替代高碳能源、可再生能源替代化石能源。 The development and utilization of non-fossil energy is a major element of transitioning to a low-carbon and eco-friendly energy system. China gives priority to non-fossil energy, and strives to substitute low-carbon for high-carbon energy and renewable for fossil energy. -
  推动太阳能多元化利用。按照技术进步、成本降低、扩大市场、完善体系的原则,全面推进太阳能多方式、多元化利用。统筹光伏发电的布局与市场消纳,集中式与分布式并举开展光伏发电建设,实施光伏发电“领跑者”计划,采用市场竞争方式配置项目,加快推动光伏发电技术进步和成本降低,光伏产业已成为具有国际竞争力的优势产业。完善光伏发电分布式应用的电网接入等服务机制,推动光伏与农业、养殖、治沙等综合发展,形成多元化光伏发电发展模式。通过示范项目建设推进太阳能热发电产业化发展,为相关产业链的发展提供市场支撑。推动太阳能热利用不断拓展市场领域和利用方式,在工业、商业、公共服务等领域推广集中热水工程,开展太阳能供暖试点。 Facilitating the use of solar energy. In line with the principles of driving technological progress, reducing costs, expanding the market and improving the system, China is promoting the use of solar energy in an all-round way. It makes overall planning of geographical layout of solar PV generation bases and market accommodation, with emphasis on both centralized and decentralized power generation. It has implemented a “leader board” incentive to encourage solar PV power generation, and allowed projects to -
  全面协调推进风电开发。按照统筹规划、集散并举、陆海齐进、有效利用的原则,在做好风电开发与电力送出和市场消纳衔接的前提下,有序推进风电开发利用和大型风电基地建设。积极开发中东部分散风能资源。积极稳妥发展海上风电。优先发展平价风电项目,推行市场化竞争方式配置风电项目。以风电的规模化开发利用促进风电制造产业发展,风电制造产业的创新能力和国际竞争力不断提升,产业服务体系逐步完善。 Developing wind power. On the basis of balancing wind power development with power transmission and accommodation, China is taking steps to exploit wind power and building large-scale wind power bases. Based on the principles of overall planning and coordination, and efficient utilization and development of centralized and decentralized wind power both onshore and offshore, it is taking active measures to develop decentralized wind energy in the middle and eastern parts of the country, and offshore wind far -
  推进水电绿色发展。坚持生态优先、绿色发展,在做好生态环境保护和移民安置的前提下,科学有序推进水电开发,做到开发与保护并重、建设与管理并重。以西南地区主要河流为重点,有序推进流域大型水电基地建设,合理控制中小水电开发。推进小水电绿色发展,加大对实施河流生态修复的财政投入,促进河流生态健康。完善水电开发移民利益共享政策,坚持水电开发促进地方经济社会发展和移民脱贫致富,努力做到“开发一方资源、发展一方经济、改善一方环境、造福一方百姓”。 Developing green hydropower. China considers eco-environmental conservation to be a priority and pursues green development. While protecting the eco-environment and relocating the residents, China develops hydropower in a rational and orderly way, giving equal importance to development and conservation, and emphasizing on both the construction and consequent management of the facilities. Focusing on major rivers in the southwest, China is building large hydropower bases and controlling the construction of s -
  安全有序发展核电。中国将核安全作为核电发展的生命线,坚持发展与安全并重,实行安全有序发展核电的方针,加强核电规划、选址、设计、建造、运行和退役等全生命周期管理和监督,坚持采用最先进的技术、最严格的标准发展核电。完善多层次核能、核安全法规标准体系,加强核应急预案和法制、体制、机制建设,形成有效应对核事故的国家核应急能力体系。强化核安保与核材料管制,严格履行核安保与核不扩散国际义务,始终保持着良好的核安保记录。迄今为止在运核电机组总体安全状况良好,未发生国际核事件分级2级及以上的事件或事故。 Developing safe and structured nuclear power. Nuclear security is the lifeline in developing nuclear power. China attaches equal importance to safety and the orderly development of nuclear power. It has strengthened whole-life management and supervision of nuclear power planning, site selection, design, construction, operation, and decommissioning, and adopted the most advanced technologies and strictest standards for the nuclear power industry. China is improving the multilevel system of regulations and st -
  因地制宜发展生物质能、地热能和海洋能。采用符合环保标准的先进技术发展城镇生活垃圾焚烧发电,推动生物质发电向热电联产转型升级。积极推进生物天然气产业化发展和农村沼气转型升级。坚持不与人争粮、不与粮争地的原则,严格控制燃料乙醇加工产能扩张,重点提升生物柴油产品品质,推进非粮生物液体燃料技术产业化发展。创新地热能开发利用模式,开展地热能城镇集中供暖,建设地热能高效开发利用示范区,有序开展地热能发电。积极推进潮流能、波浪能等海洋能技术研发和示范应用。 Developing biomass, geothermal and ocean energy in accordance with local conditions. China is adopting advanced technologies that meet environmental protection standards to generate power by means of urban solid waste incineration, and upgrading biomass power generation to cogeneration of heat and power. It is growing biogas into an industry and transforming methane use in rural areas. In industrializing liquid bio-fuel production by means of non-food biomass, it avoids using crops as raw materials and occu -
  全面提升可再生能源利用率。完善可再生能源发电全额保障性收购制度。实施清洁能源消纳行动计划,多措并举促进清洁能源利用。提高电力规划整体协调性,优化电源结构和布局,充分发挥市场调节功能,形成有利于可再生能源利用的体制机制,全面提升电力系统灵活性和调节能力。实行可再生能源电力消纳保障机制,对各省、自治区、直辖市行政区域按年度确定电力消费中可再生能源应达到的最低比重指标,要求电力销售企业和电力用户共同履行可再生能源电力消纳责任。发挥电网优化资源配置平台作用,促进源网荷储互动协调,完善可再生能源电力消纳考核和监管机制。可再生能源电力利用率显著提升,2019年全国平均风电利用率达96%、光伏发电利用率达98%、主要流域水能利用率达96%。 Increasing the overall utilization rate of renewable energy. China guarantees full acquisition of all renewable energy generated. It has implemented a clean energy accommodation action plan and is adopting various measures to promote the use of clean energy. It is improving the overall planning of the power sector, optimizing the power supply structure and layout, and allowing the market to function as a regulator, to form institutional mechanisms conducive to the use of renewable energy and make the power -
(二)清洁高效开发利用化石能源 2. Promoting Clean and Efficient Development and Utilization of Fossil Energy -
  根据国内资源禀赋,以资源环境承载力为基础,统筹化石能源开发利用与生态环境保护,有序发展先进产能,加快淘汰落后产能,推进煤炭清洁高效利用,提升油气勘探开发力度,促进增储上产,提高油气自给能力。 China coordinates the development and utilization of fossil energy and eco-environmental protection in accordance with its resource endowment and the bearing capacity of natural resources and the environment. It promotes advanced production capacity while phasing out outdated capacity. It also promotes the clean and efficient utilization of coal and the exploration and development of oil and gas, and works to increase reserves and production, so as to be more self-sufficient in oil and gas. -
  推进煤炭安全智能绿色开发利用。努力建设集约、安全、高效、清洁的煤炭工业体系。推进煤炭供给侧结构性改革,完善煤炭产能置换政策,加快淘汰落后产能,有序释放优质产能,煤炭开发布局和产能结构大幅优化,大型现代化煤矿成为煤炭生产主体。2016年至2019年,累计退出煤炭落后产能9亿吨/年以上。加大安全生产投入,健全安全生产长效机制,加快煤矿机械化、自动化、信息化、智能化建设,全面提升煤矿安全生产效率和安全保障水平。推进大型煤炭基地绿色化开采和改造,发展煤炭洗选加工,发展矿区循环经济,加强矿区生态环境治理,建成一批绿色矿山,资源综合利用水平全面提升。实施煤炭清洁高效利用行动,煤炭消费中发电用途占比进一步提升。煤制油气、低阶煤分质利用等煤炭深加工产业化示范取得积极进展。 Facilitating the safe, smart and green utilization of coal. China strives to build an intensive, safe, efficient and clean coal industry. It is furthering supply-side structural reform in the industry, improving the coal production capacity replacement policy, speeding up the decommissioning of outdated production facilities, and releasing high-quality capacity in an orderly manner. As a result, the configuration and production capacity of the coal mining sector have seen notable improvement, and large mode -
  清洁高效发展火电。坚持清洁高效原则发展火电。推进煤电布局优化和技术升级,积极稳妥化解煤电过剩产能。建立并完善煤电规划建设风险预警机制,严控煤电规划建设,加快淘汰落后产能。截至2019年底,累计淘汰煤电落后产能超过1亿千瓦,煤电装机占总发电装机比重从2012年的65.7%下降至2019年的52%。实施煤电节能减排升级与改造行动,执行更严格能效环保标准。煤电机组发电效率、污染物排放控制达到世界先进水平。合理布局适度发展天然气发电,鼓励在电力负荷中心建设天然气调峰电站,提升电力系统安全保障水平。 Promoting the clean and efficient development of thermal power. China has been optimizing coal-fired power and upgrading technology to steadily reduce excess capacity. It has improved the early warning mechanism for risk control in coal-fired power planning and construction, and moved faster to phase out outdated capacity. By the end of 2019, China had phased out more than 100 million kW of outdated coal power capacity, and the ratio of coal-fired power in total power generation had dropped from 65.7 percen -
  提高天然气生产能力。加强基础地质调查和资源评价,加强科技创新、产业扶持,促进常规天然气增产,重点突破页岩气、煤层气等非常规天然气勘探开发,推动页岩气规模化开发,增加国内天然气供应。完善非常规天然气产业政策体系,促进页岩气、煤层气开发利用。以四川盆地、鄂尔多斯盆地、塔里木盆地为重点,建成多个百亿立方米级天然气生产基地。2017年以来,每年新增天然气产量超过100亿立方米。 Increasing the production of natural gas. In order to increase domestic natural gas supply, China has strengthened basic geological surveying and resource evaluation, and stepped up scientific and technological innovation and industrial support for conventional natural gas production. It is also making breakthroughs in unconventional natural gas exploration and development, such as shale gas and coal-bed gas, and is working on large-scale shale gas exploitation. It is improving relevant policies for the exp -
提升石油勘探开发与加工水平。加强国内勘探开发,深化体制机制改革、促进科技研发和新技术应用,加大低品位资源勘探开发力度,推进原油增储上产。发展先进采油技术,提高原油采收率,稳定松辽盆地、渤海湾盆地等东部老油田产量。以新疆地区、鄂尔多斯盆地等为重点,推进西部新油田增储上产。加强渤海、东海和南海等海域近海油气勘探开发,推进深海对外合作,2019年海上油田产量约4000万吨。推进炼油行业转型升级。实施成品油质量升级,提升燃油品质,促进减少机动车尾气污染物排放。 Raising the level of oil exploration, development and processing. China has strengthened domestic oil exploration and development, furthering related institutional reforms and promoting scientific and technological R&D and the application of new technologies. It has intensified the exploration and development of low-grade resources, and increased crude oil reserves and production. It has developed advanced oil recovery technologies, increased the recovery ratio of crude oil, and ensured steady output at old -
  (三)加强能源储运调峰体系建设 3. Improving the Energy Storage, Transportation and Peak-Shaving System -
  统筹发展煤电油气多种能源输运方式,构建互联互通输配网络,打造稳定可靠的储运调峰体系,提升应急保障能力。 China coordinates the transportation of various energy resources such as coal, electricity, oil, and gas. It has built interconnected transmission and distribution networks and established a stable and reliable energy storage, transportation and peak-shaving system, to enhance its emergency response. -
  加强能源输配网络建设。持续加强跨省跨区骨干能源输送通道建设,提升能源主要产地与主要消费区域间通达能力,促进区域优势互补、协调发展。提升既有铁路煤炭运输专线的输送能力,持续提升铁路运输比例和煤炭运输效率。推进天然气主干管道与省级管网、液化天然气接收站、储气库间互联互通,加快建设“全国一张网”,初步形成调度灵活、安全可靠的天然气输运体系。稳步推进跨省跨区输电通道建设,扩大西北、华北、东北和西南等区域清洁能源配置范围。完善区域电网主网架,加强省级区域内部电网建设。开展柔性直流输电示范工程建设,积极建设能源互联网,推动构建规模合理、分层分区、安全可靠的电力系统。 Strengthening energy transmission and distribution networks. China has been building cross-provincial and cross-regional key energy transmission channels, to connect major energy producing and consumption regions, and promote the complementary and coordinated development between regions. It has improved the capacity of existing railway lines for transporting coal, and seen that more coal is transported by rail with higher efficiency. It has enhanced the connectivity between main natural gas pipelines and pr -
  健全能源储备应急体系。建立国家储备与企业储备相结合、战略储备与商业储备并举的能源储备体系,提高石油、天然气和煤炭等储备能力。完善国家石油储备体系,加快石油储备基地建设。建立健全地方政府、供气企业、管输企业、城镇燃气企业各负其责的多层次天然气储气调峰体系。完善以企业社会责任储备为主体、地方政府储备为补充的煤炭储备体系。健全国家大面积停电事件应急机制,全面提升电力供应可靠性和应急保障能力。建立健全与能源储备能力相匹配的输配保障体系,构建规范化的收储、轮换、动用体系,完善决策执行的监管机制。 Improving energy reserves for emergency response. China has integrated state, corporate, strategic and commercial reserves to achieve higher reserves for oil, natural gas and coal. It has improved the national oil reserve system and accelerated the construction of oil reserve bases. It has set up a multilevel natural gas storage and peak-shaving system, with local governments, gas suppliers, pipeline transportation enterprises and urban gas services fulfilling their respective responsibilities. It has also -
  完善能源调峰体系。坚持供给侧与需求侧并重,完善市场机制,加强技术支撑,增强调峰能力,提升能源系统综合利用效率。加快抽水蓄能电站建设,合理布局天然气调峰电站,实施既有燃煤热电联产机组、燃煤发电机组灵活性改造,改善电力系统调峰性能,促进清洁能源消纳。推动储能与新能源发电、电力系统协调优化运行,开展电化学储能等调峰试点。推进天然气储气调峰设施建设,完善天然气储气调峰辅助服务市场化机制,提升天然气调峰能力。完善电价、气价政策,引导电力、天然气用户自主参与调峰、错峰,提升需求侧响应能力。健全电力和天然气负荷可中断、可调节管理体系,挖掘需求侧潜力。 Enhancing the energy peak-shaving system. China attaches equal importance to the supply side and the demand side. It strives to increase the peak-shaving capacity with sound market mechanism and strong technological support, so as to use the energy system in an efficient and allround way. It has accelerated the construction of pumped-storage power stations, built natural gas peak-shaving power stations as appropriate, and implemented power flexibility transformation projects in existing coal-fired CHP cogen -
  (四)支持农村及贫困地区能源发展 4. Supporting Energy Development in Rural and Poor Areas -
  落实乡村振兴战略,提高农村生活用能保障水平,让农村居民有更多实实在在的获得感、幸福感、安全感。 China has implemented the strategy of rural revitalization to improve energy security in rural areas, so that the residents can have a better sense of gain, happiness and security. -
  加快完善农村能源基础设施。让所有人都能用上电,是全面建成小康社会的基本条件。实施全面解决无电人口问题三年行动计划,2015年底全面解决了无电人口用电问题。中国高度重视农村电网改造升级,着力补齐农村电网发展短板。实施小城镇中心村农网改造升级、平原农村地区机井通电和贫困村通动力电专项工程。2018年起,重点推进深度贫困地区和抵边村寨农网改造升级攻坚。加快天然气支线管网和基础设施建设,扩大管网覆盖范围。在天然气管网未覆盖的地区推进液化天然气、压缩天然气、液化石油气供应网点建设,因地制宜开发利用可再生能源,改善农村供能条件。 Improving rural energy infrastructure. Making electricity accessible to all is a basic condition for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. China implemented a three-year action plan to ensure power access for people without electricity, and had achieved this goal by the end of 2015. China attaches great importance to the renovation and upgrading of the rural power grid and makes great efforts to strengthen the weak links in the process. It has carried out targeted programs for renovating -
  精准实施能源扶贫工程。能源不仅是经济发展的动力,也是扶贫的重要支撑。中国合理开发利用贫困地区能源资源,积极推进贫困地区重大能源项目建设,提升贫困地区自身“造血”能力,为贫困地区经济发展增添新动能。在革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区优先布局能源开发项目,建设清洁电力外送基地,为所在地区经济增长作出重要贡献。在水电开发建设中,形成了水库移民“搬得出、稳得住、能致富”的可持续发展模式,让贫困人口更多分享资源开发收益。加强财政投入和政策扶持,支持贫困地区发展生物质能、风能、太阳能、小水电等清洁能源。推行多种形式的光伏与农业融合发展模式,实施光伏扶贫工程,建成了成千上万座遍布贫困农村地区的“阳光银行”。 Carrying out targeted poverty alleviation through energy projects. Energy is a driving force for economic development, and also an important impetus for poverty alleviation. China makes sound plans for the exploitation of energy resources in poor areas, introducing major energy projects in these areas to improve their capability to sustain themselves, thus adding new momentum to the local economy. It has given priority to energy development projects in old revolutionary bases, ethnic minority areas, border -
  推进北方农村地区冬季清洁取暖。北方地区冬季清洁取暖关系广大人民群众生活,是重大民生工程、民心工程。以保障北方地区广大群众温暖过冬、减少大气污染为立足点,在北方农村地区因地制宜开展清洁取暖。按照企业为主、政府推动、居民可承受的方针,稳妥推进“煤改气”“煤改电”,支持利用清洁生物质燃料、地热能、太阳能供暖以及热泵技术应用。截至2019年底,北方农村地区清洁取暖率约31%,比2016年提高21.6个百分点;北方农村地区累计完成散煤替代约2300万户,其中京津冀及周边地区、汾渭平原累计完成散煤清洁化替代约1800万户。 The central village is a rural community composed of a number of administrative villages with a certain population size and relatively complete public facilities. -
五、发挥科技创新第一动力作用 V. Leveraging the Role of Innovation as the Primary Driver of Development -
  抓住全球新一轮科技革命与产业变革的机遇,在能源领域大力实施创新驱动发展战略,增强能源科技创新能力,通过技术进步解决能源资源约束、生态环境保护、应对气候变化等重大问题和挑战。 China has seized the opportunities presented by the new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation. In the energy sector, it has implemented a strategy of innovation-driven development to increase its capacity for scientific and technological innovation and address major issues and challenges, such as energy resource constraints, environmental protection, and climate change, through advances in technology. -
  (一)完善能源科技创新政策顶层设计 1. Improving Top Level Design for Energy Policies Relating to Scientific and Technological Innovation -
  中国将能源作为国家创新驱动发展战略的重要组成部分,把能源科技创新摆在更加突出的地位。《国家创新驱动发展战略纲要》将安全清洁高效现代能源技术作为重要战略方向和重点领域。制定能源资源科技创新规划和面向2035年的能源、资源科技发展战略规划,部署了能源科技创新重大举措和重大任务,努力提升科技创新引领和支撑作用。 China has made energy a vital part of its innovation-driven development strategy, and given more prominence to innovation in energy science and technology. Modern energy technology that is safe, clean and of high efficiency is a key strategic sector and a national priority in the country’s “Outline of Innovation-driven Development Strategy”. Accordingly China has drawn blueprints for sci-tech innovation in energy and resources, made strategic plans for scientific and technological development of the resourc -
制定能源技术创新规划和《能源技术革命创新行动计划(2016-2030年)》,提出能源技术创新的重点方向和技术路线图。深化能源科技体制改革,形成政府引导、市场主导、企业为主体、社会参与、多方协同的能源技术创新体系。加大重要能源领域和新兴能源产业科技创新投入,加强人才队伍建设,提升各类主体创新能力。 By making plans for technological innovation in energy and creating the “Innovation Action Plan of Energy Technological Revolution (2016-2030)”, China has charted the roadmap and identified its priorities. Through deeper reform, China is establishing an energy science and technology system in which technological innovation is directed by the government and led by the market, and engages the whole of society, with enterprises playing a major role and all stakeholders coordinating with each other. At the same -
  (二)建设多元化多层次能源科技创新平台 2. Creating Diversified Platforms for Technological Innovation in Energy at Various Levels -
  依托骨干企业、科研院所和高校,建成一批高水平能源技术创新平台,有效激发了各类主体的创新活力。布局建设40多个国家重点实验室和一批国家工程研究中心,重点围绕煤炭安全绿色智能开采、可再生能源高效利用、储能与分布式能源等技术方向开展相关研究,促进能源科技进步。布局建设80余个国家能源研发中心和国家能源重点实验室,围绕煤炭、石油、天然气、火电、核电、可再生能源、能源装备重点领域和关键环节开展研究,覆盖当前能源技术创新的重点领域和前沿方向。大型能源企业适应自身发展和行业需要,不断加强科技能力建设,形成若干专业领域、有影响力的研究机构。地方政府结合本地产业优势,采取多种方式加强科研能力建设。在“大众创业、万众创新”政策支持下,各类社会主体积极开展科技创新,形成了众多能源科技创新型企业。 On the strength of leading enterprises, research institutions and universities, China has created a number of high-standard platforms for technological innovation, and inspired enthusiasm for innovation among all parties involved. Amid efforts to promote scientific and technological advances in energy, China has established more than 40 key national laboratories and a group of national engineering research centers that focus on research into technologies for safe, green and intelligent coal mining, highly e -
  (三)开展能源重大领域协同科技创新 3. Promoting Coordinated Scientific and Technological Innovation in Key Realms of the Energy Sector -
  实施重大科技项目和工程,实现能源领域关键技术跨越式发展。聚焦国家重大战略产业化目标,实施油气科技重大专项,重点突破油气地质新理论与高效勘探开发关键技术,开展页岩油、页岩气、天然气水合物等非常规资源经济高效开发技术攻关。实施核电科技重大专项,围绕三代压水堆和四代高温气冷堆技术,开展关键核心技术攻关,持续推进核电自主创新。面向重大共性关键技术,部署开展新能源汽车、智能电网技术与装备、煤矿智能化开采技术与装备、煤炭清洁高效利用与新型节能技术、可再生能源与氢能技术等方面研究。面向国家重大战略任务,重点部署能源高效洁净利用与转化的物理化学基础研究,推动以基础研究带动应用技术突破。 China has implemented major scientific and technological initiatives and projects to achieve leapfrog development in key energy technologies. Focusing on its strategic industrial goals, China has rolled out a project on oil and gas technology whose emphasis is making breakthroughs in petroleum geology theory and key technologies for high-efficiency exploration and exploitation, as well as finding technology solutions to low-cost, high-efficiency exploitation of unconventional sources of energy, including sh -
(四)依托重大能源工程提升能源技术装备水平 4. Launching Major Energy Projects to Upgrade Energy Technologies and Equipment -
  在全球能源绿色低碳转型发展趋势下,加快传统能源技术装备升级换代,加强新兴能源技术装备自主创新,清洁低碳能源技术水平显著提升。依托重大装备制造和重大示范工程,推动关键能源装备技术攻关、试验示范和推广应用。完善能源装备计量、标准、检测和认证体系,提高重大能源装备研发、设计、制造和成套能力。 In a global trend of transition to green and low-carbon development in the energy sector, China has accelerated the upgrading of conventional energy technologies and equipment, and is replacing them with new ones at a faster pace. It has redoubled efforts to make independent innovations in emerging energy technologies, and achieved a marked improvement in clean, low-carbon energy technologies. By launching major equipment manufacturing projects and major demonstration projects, China has made breakthroughs -
围绕能源安全供应、清洁能源发展和化石能源清洁高效利用三大方向,着力突破能源装备制造关键技术、材料和零部件等瓶颈,推动全产业链技术创新。开展先进能源技术装备的重大能源示范工程建设,提升煤炭清洁智能采掘洗选、深水和非常规油气勘探开发、油气储运和输送、清洁高效燃煤发电、先进核电、可再生能源发电、燃气轮机、储能、先进电网、煤炭深加工等领域装备的技术水平。 To achieve secure energy supply, develop clean energy, and encourage the clean, efficient use of fossil fuels, China concentrates on making breakthroughs in key technologies in energy equipment manufacturing, solving bottleneck issues involving materials and accessories, and promoting technological innovation along the whole industrial chain. China has launched major demonstration projects for advanced energy technologies and equipment in such fields as clean and intelligent coal mining, washing and selecti -
  (五)支持新技术新模式新业态发展 5. Supporting the Development of New Technologies and New Business Forms and Models -
当前,世界正处在新科技革命和产业革命交汇点,新技术突破加速带动产业变革,促进能源新模式新业态不断涌现。大力推动能源技术与现代信息、材料和先进制造技术深度融合,依托“互联网+”智慧能源建设,探索能源生产和消费新模式。加快智能光伏创新升级,推动光伏发电与农业、渔业、牧业、建筑等融合发展,拓展光伏发电互补应用新空间,形成广泛开发利用新能源的新模式。 The world now stands at the confluence of a new round of technological revolution and an industrial revolution. New technological breakthroughs have accelerated industrial transformation, giving rise to waves of new business forms and models in the energy sector. China has made strenuous efforts to integrate energy technologies with modern and advanced information, material and manufacturing technologies, and has rolled out the “Internet +” intelligent energy program to explore new models of energy producti -
加速发展绿氢制取、储运和应用等氢能产业链技术装备,促进氢能燃料电池技术链、氢燃料电池汽车产业链发展。支持能源各环节各场景储能应用,着力推进储能与可再生能源互补发展。支持新能源微电网建设,形成发储用一体化局域清洁供能系统。推动综合能源服务新模式,实现终端能源多能互补、协同高效。在试点示范项目引领和带动下,各类能源新技术、新模式、新业态持续涌现,形成能源创新发展的“聚变效应”。 China has picked up its pace in developing industrial chains in the production, storage, transport and application of green hydrogen, hydrogen-fuel cells, and hydrogen-powered vehicles. It supports the application of energy storage technologies at multiple points in energy production and utilization, and the complementary development of energy storage and renewable energy. By supporting the construction of micro-grids for new energy, China has established regional systems of clean energy supply that integra -
  六、全面深化能源体制改革 VI. Deeper Reform of the Energy System in All Areas -
  充分发挥市场在能源资源配置中的决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用,深化重点领域和关键环节市场化改革,破除妨碍发展的体制机制障碍,着力解决市场体系不完善等问题,为维护国家能源安全、推进能源高质量发展提供制度保障。 China will fully leverage the decisive role of the market in allocating energy resources, and ensure the government better play its part in this regard. It will extend market-oriented reform in key areas and on vital issues to remove institutional barriers, solve the problem of an incomplete market system, provide strong institutional guarantees for China’s energy security and boost the high-quality development of the energy sector. -
  (一)构建有效竞争的能源市场 1. Creating an Energy Market with Effective Competition -
  大力培育多元市场主体,打破垄断、放宽准入、鼓励竞争,构建统一开放、竞争有序的能源市场体系,着力清除市场壁垒,提高能源资源配置效率和公平性。 China is working hard to cultivate a variety of market entities, break up monopolies, ease market access, and encourage competition. It is building an energy market system that is unified, open, competitive and yet orderly, removing market barriers, and making the allocation of energy resources more efficient and fairer.  -
  培育多元能源市场主体。支持各类市场主体依法平等进入负面清单以外的能源领域,形成多元市场主体共同参与的格局。深化油气勘查开采体制改革,开放油气勘查开采市场,实行勘查区块竞争出让和更加严格的区块退出机制。支持符合条件的企业进口原油。改革油气管网运营机制,实现管输和销售业务分离。稳步推进售电侧改革,有序向社会资本开放配售电业务,深化电网企业主辅分离。积极培育配售电、储能、综合能源服务等新兴市场主体。深化国有能源企业改革,支持非公有制发展,积极稳妥开展能源领域混合所有制改革,激发企业活力动力。 Diversifying market entities. China supports a variety of market entities to operate in segments of the energy sector that are not on the entry negative list, in accordance with the law and on equal footing. China has extended systemic reform of oil and gas exploration and exploitation and opened up the market in this regard. It has implemented competitive trading of oil and gas exploration blocks, and adopted a more rigorous exit mechanism for oil- and gas-bearing zones. China encourages qualified enterpri -
  建设统一开放、竞争有序的能源市场体系。根据不同能源品种特点,搭建煤炭、电力、石油和天然气交易平台,促进供需互动。推动建设现代化煤炭市场体系,发展动力煤、炼焦煤、原油期货交易和天然气现货交易。全面放开经营性电力用户发用电计划,建设中长期交易、现货交易等电能量交易和辅助服务交易相结合的电力市场。积极推进全国统一电力市场和全国碳排放权交易市场建设。 Building an energy market system that is unified, open, and competitive yet orderly. China has established trading platforms for coal, electricity, petroleum and natural gas to facilitate interaction between demand and supply. A modern coal market system is under construction. Futures trading of thermal coal, coking coal and crude oil and spot trading of natural gas are under way. Restrictions have been lifted on the generation and consumption of electricity by commercial consumers. An electricity market is -
 (二)完善主要由市场决定能源价格的机制 2. Improving the Market-Based Mechanism for Deciding Energy Prices -
  按照“管住中间、放开两头”总体思路,稳步放开竞争性领域和竞争性环节价格,促进价格反映市场供求、引导资源配置;严格政府定价成本监审,推进科学合理定价。 Following the principle of “allowing for more competition in electricity generation, sales and consumption while tightening government regulation of power grid, transmission and distribution”, China has lifted price control over competitive areas and links. The goal is to allow prices to reflect market demand, and thereby guide the allocation of resources. It has also conducted strict government oversight of the determination of pricing to cover reasonable costs. -
  有序放开竞争性环节价格。推动分步实现公益性以外的发售电价格由市场形成,电力用户或售电主体可与发电企业通过市场化方式确定交易价格。进一步深化燃煤发电上网电价机制改革,实行“基准价+上下浮动”的市场化价格机制。稳步推进以竞争性招标方式确定新建风电、光伏发电项目上网电价。推动按照“风险共担、利益共享”原则协商或通过市场化方式形成跨省跨区送电价格。完善成品油价格形成机制,推进天然气价格市场化改革。坚持保基本、促节约原则,全面推行居民阶梯电价、阶梯气价制度。 Lifting price control over competitive links in an orderly manner. China is steadily fostering a market-based pricing mechanism of commercial electricity generation and distribution, and allowing prices to be decided by electricity users, sellers and producers through market-based modalities. China has extended reform of the price-setting mechanism for on-grid electricity from coal-fired power plants, and introduced a market-based pricing mechanism in which electricity prices may fluctuate above or below th -
  科学核定自然垄断环节价格。按照“准许成本+合理收益”原则,合理制定电网、天然气管网输配价格。开展两个监管周期输配电定价成本监审和电价核定。强化输配气价格监管,开展成本监审,构建天然气输配领域全环节价格监管体系。 Appropriately deciding prices for natural monopoly operations. Allowing recovery of costs plus reasonable profits, China has set appropriate transmission and distribution prices for power grids and gas pipelines. It has analyzed costs and verified prices for electricity transmission and distribution over two regulatory periods. China has also stepped up the price regulation of gas transmission and distribution and analyzed gas costs in order to establish a price regulation system that covers the whole proce -
(三)创新能源科学管理和优化服务 3. Innovative Management of the Energy Sector and Improved Government Services -
  进一步转变政府职能,简政放权、放管结合、优化服务,着力打造服务型政府。发挥能源战略规划和宏观政策导向作用,集中力量办大事。强化能源市场监管,提升监管效能,促进各类市场主体公平竞争。坚持人民至上、生命至上理念,牢牢守住能源安全生产底线。 Working to become a service-oriented government, the Chinese government has further transformed its functions, streamlined administration, delegated powers, improved regulation and upgraded services. It employs strategic plans and macro-policies on energy, and mobilizes resources for major undertakings. Better oversight and regulation of the energy market will deliver better results and promote fair competition among all market entities. Putting people and lives above everything else, China has remained fir -
  激发市场主体活力。深化能源“放管服”改革,减少中央政府层面能源项目核准,将部分能源项目审批核准权限下放地方,取消可由市场主体自主决策的能源项目审批。减少前置审批事项,降低市场准入门槛,加强和规范事中事后监管。提升“获得电力”服务水平,压减办电时间、环节和成本。推行“互联网+政务”服务,推进能源政务服务事项“一窗受理”“应进必进”,提升“一站式”服务水平。 Igniting the vitality of market entities. China has extended reform in the energy sector to delegate powers, improve regulation, and upgrade services. This includes reducing approval by the central government for energy projects and delegating the approval power to local authorities for some projects. The requirement for government review and approval has been rescinded for energy projects about which market entities can decide at their own discretion. The number of items of preliminary review has been slas -
 引导资源配置方向。制定实施《能源生产和消费革命战略(2016-2030)》以及能源发展规划和系列专项规划、行动计划,明确能源发展的总体目标和重点任务,引导社会主体的投资方向。完善能源领域财政、税收、产业和投融资政策,全面实施原油、天然气、煤炭资源税从价计征,提高成品油消费税,引导市场主体合理开发利用能源资源。构建绿色金融正向激励体系,推广新能源汽车,发展清洁能源。支持大宗能源商品贸易人民币计价结算。 Guiding the allocation of resources. In addition to other plans, including special plans and action plans, China has drawn up and implemented the “Strategy for Energy Production and Consumption Revolution (2016-2030)” for developing the energy sector. These define the overall goals and key tasks, and guide investment in the sector. In order to encourage market entities to appropriately explore and utilize energy resources, China has refined its fiscal, taxation, industrial, financing, and investment policie -
  促进市场公平竞争。理顺能源监管职责关系,逐步实现电力监管向综合能源监管转型。严格电力交易、调度、供电服务和市场秩序监管,强化电网公平接入、电网投资行为、成本及投资运行效率监管。加强油气管网设施公平开放监管,推进油气管网设施企业信息公开,提高油气管网设施利用率。全面推行“双随机、一公开”监管,提高监管公平公正性。加强能源行业信用体系建设,依法依规建立严重失信主体名单制度,实施失信惩戒,提升信用监管效能。包容审慎监管新兴业态,促进新动能发展壮大。畅通能源监管热线,发挥社会监督作用。 Promoting fair competition. China has overhauled the government’s regulatory power and responsibilities, and gradually transformed regulation of the electricity sector to comprehensive regulation of the entire energy sector. It has tightened regulation of electricity transaction, distribution and supply, the market order, equitable connection to the power grid, and grid investment, cost and efficiency. China has also reinforced oversight of the opening of oil and gas pipeline facilities to all eligible user -
  筑牢安全生产底线。健全煤矿安全生产责任体系,提高煤矿安全监管监察执法效能,建设煤矿安全生产标准化管理体系,增强防灾治灾能力,煤矿安全生产形势总体好转。落实电力安全企业主体责任、行业监管责任和属地管理责任,提升电力系统网络安全监督管理,加强电力建设工程施工安全监管和质量监督,电力系统安全风险总体可控,未发生大面积停电事故。加强油气全产业链安全监管,油气安全生产形势保持稳定。持续强化核安全监管体系建设,提高核安全监管能力,核电厂和研究堆总体安全状况良好,在建工程建造质量整体受控。 Ensuring production safety. China has improved the accountability system for coal mine safety, raised the efficiency of coal mine supervision,regulation and law enforcement, created a standardized management system for coal mine safety, and built up its capacity for disaster prevention and control. As a result coal mine safety has much improved. Enterprises share the main responsibility for power safety, industry regulators share the regulatory responsibility, and local authorities have the overall responsi -
  (四)健全能源法治体系 4. Improving the Rule of Law in the Energy Sector -
  发挥法治固根本、稳预期、利长远的保障作用,坚持能源立法同改革发展相衔接,及时修改和废止不适应改革发展要求的法律法规;坚持法定职责必须为、法无授权不可为,依法全面履行政府职能。 Implementation of the rule of law is essential in the energy sector. It stabilizes expectations and creates long-term benefits. China aligns law making with reform and development in the energy industry, and has amended or abolished laws and regulations incompatible with the needs of reform and development in the sector. China adheres to the principle that administrative bodies must fulfill their statutory obligations and must not take any action that is not mandated by law, and sees that the government ful -
  完善能源法律体系。推进能源领域法律及行政法规制修订工作,加强能源领域法律法规实施监督检查,加快电力、煤炭、石油、天然气、核电、新能源等领域规章规范性文件的“立改废”进程,将改革成果体现在法律法规和重大政策中。 Improving the system of energy laws. More laws and administrative regulations concerning the energy sector have been formulated or amended. Supervision and inspection of the enforcement of energy laws and regulations has been intensified. The work to enact, amend or repeal regulations and normative documents in the fields of electricity, coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power and new energy has been accelerated, in order to incorporate reform results into China’s laws, regulations and major policies.  -
  推进能源依法治理。推进法治政府建设,推动将法治贯穿于能源战略、规划、政策、标准的制定、实施和监督管理全过程。构建政企联动、互为支撑的能源普法新格局,形成尊法、学法、守法、用法良好氛围。创新行政执法方式,全面推行行政执法公示制度、行政执法全过程记录制度、重大执法决定法制审核制度,全面落实行政执法责任制。畅通行政复议和行政诉讼渠道,确保案件依法依规办理,依法保护行政相对人合法权益,让人民在每一个案件中切实感受到公平正义。 Improving law-based governance of the energy sector. China is working to ensure law-based governance and see that the rule of law materializes in the entire process of making, enforcing, overseeing and managing energy strategies, plans, policies and standards. To raise awareness of the law, it is developing a new paradigm that features interaction and mutual support between the government and enterprises, which will help create an enabling environment across the nation for respecting, studying and observing -
  七、全方位加强能源国际合作 VII. Strengthening International Energy Cooperation Across the Board -
  中国践行绿色发展理念,遵循互利共赢原则开展国际合作,努力实现开放条件下能源安全,扩大能源领域对外开放,推动高质量共建“一带一路”,积极参与全球能源治理,引导应对气候变化国际合作,推动构建人类命运共同体。 China bases international cooperation on the principle of mutual benefit and win-win results while embracing the concept of green development. It is endeavoring to ensure energy security in an open environment, open its energy sector wider to the world, promote high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, actively engage in global energy governance, guide global cooperation in climate change, and build a global community of shared future. -
  (一)持续深化能源领域对外开放 1. Opening the Energy Sector Further to the World -
  中国坚定不移维护全球能源市场稳定,扩大能源领域对外开放。大幅度放宽外商投资准入,打造市场化法治化国际化营商环境,促进贸易和投资自由化便利化。全面实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度,能源领域外商投资准入限制持续减少。全面取消煤炭、油气、电力(除核电外)、新能源等领域外资准入限制。推动广东、湖北、重庆、海南等自由贸易试验区能源产业发展,支持浙江自由贸易试验区油气全产业链开放发展。埃克森美孚、通用电气、碧辟、法国电力、西门子等国际能源公司在中国投资规模稳步增加,上海特斯拉电动汽车等重大外资项目相继在中国落地,外资加油站数量快速增长。 China is committed to a stable global energy market and is opening its energy sector wider to the world. It has greatly eased market access for foreign investment, and has built a market-based international business environment that respects the rule of law to facilitate free trade and investment. It has adopted pre-establishment national treatment plus a negative list, reducing restrictions on access to the energy sector for foreign investment. It has lifted the restrictions for foreign investment to enter -
(二)着力推进共建“一带一路”能源合作 2. Promoting Energy Cooperation Among BRI Countries -
  中国秉持共商共建共享原则,坚持开放、绿色、廉洁理念,努力实现高标准、惠民生、可持续的目标,同各国在共建“一带一路”框架下加强能源合作,在实现自身发展的同时更多惠及其他国家和人民,为推动共同发展创造有利条件。 China follows the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and pursues open, green and clean governance in its energy cooperation with BRI countries towards high-standard, people-centered and sustainable goals. It attempts to bring benefits to more countries and their people while maintaining its own development trajectory, and to create conditions favorable to further common development. -
  推动互利共赢的能源务实合作。中国与全球100多个国家、地区开展广泛的能源贸易、投资、产能、装备、技术、标准等领域合作。中国企业高标准建设适应合作国迫切需求的能源项目,帮助当地把资源优势转化为发展优势,促进当地技术进步、就业扩大、经济增长和民生改善,实现优势互补、共同发展。通过第三方市场合作,与一些国家和大型跨国公司开展清洁能源领域合作,推动形成开放透明、普惠共享、互利共赢的能源合作格局。2019年,中国等30个国家共同建立了“一带一路”能源合作伙伴关系。 Pragmatic and mutually beneficial energy cooperation. China engages in extensive cooperation with over 100 countries and regions around the world in terms of energy trade, investment, industrial capacity, equipment, technology, and standard setting. The high standards of Chinese enterprises are much sought after by partner countries for their energy projects, which help to turn local resource advantages into development strengths. They will also drive technical progress in these countries, create more jobs, -
  建设绿色丝绸之路。中国是全球最大的可再生能源市场,也是全球最大的清洁能源设备制造国。积极推动全球能源绿色低碳转型,广泛开展可再生能源合作,如几内亚卡雷塔水电项目、匈牙利考波什堡光伏电站项目、黑山莫茹拉风电项目、阿联酋迪拜光热光伏混合发电项目、巴基斯坦卡洛特水电站和真纳光伏园一期光伏项目等。可再生能源技术在中国市场的广泛应用,促进了全世界范围可再生能源成本的下降,加速了全球能源转型进程。 A silk road with green energy. China is the largest renewable energy market and the largest clean energy equipment manufacturer in the world. It is actively working towards green and low-carbon global energy transition by engaging in extensive cooperation in renewable energy. Its efforts can be seen in cooperation projects such as the Kaleta hydropower project in Guinea, the Kaposvar PV power station project in Hungary, the Mozura wind park project in Montenegro, Noor Energy 1 – the  CSP+PV solar power proj -
  加强能源基础设施互联互通。积极推动跨国、跨区域能源基础设施联通,为能源资源互补协作和互惠贸易创造条件。中俄、中国-中亚、中缅油气管道等一批标志性的能源重大项目建成投运,中国与周边7个国家实现电力联网,能源基础设施互联互通水平显著提升,在更大范围内促进能源资源优化配置,促进区域国家经济合作。 Greater energy infrastructure connectivity. China is promoting transnational and cross-regional energy infrastructure connectivity, creating conditions for complementary cooperation and reciprocal trade in energy resources. A batch of landmark energy projects such as the China-Russia, China-Central Asia and China-Myanmar oil and gas pipelines have been completed and brought into operation. China has now connected its grid with the power grids of seven neighboring countries, giving a strong boost to energy i -
  提高全球能源可及性。积极推动“确保人人获得负担得起的、可靠和可持续的现代能源”可持续发展目标的国内落实,积极参与能源可及性国际合作,采用多种融资模式为无电地区因地制宜开发并网、微网和离网电力项目,为使用传统炊事燃料的地区捐赠清洁炉灶,提高合作国能源普及水平,惠及当地民生。 Wider global energy access. China actively implements the UN sustainable development goal of ensuring “access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all”. It also takes an active part in global cooperation on expanding energy access. To improve energy access in partner countries and benefit ordinary people, China has employed multiple financing methods to develop electric power projects using grid-connected, microgrid, or off-grid solar systems according to local conditions, and donated -
  (三)积极参与全球能源治理 3. Actively Participating in Global Energy Governance -
  中国坚定支持多边主义,按照互利共赢原则开展双多边能源合作,积极支持国际能源组织和合作机制在全球能源治理中发挥作用,在国际多边合作框架下积极推动全球能源市场稳定与供应安全、能源绿色转型发展,为促进全球能源可持续发展贡献中国智慧、中国力量。 As a staunch supporter of multilateralism, China builds bilateral and multilateral energy cooperation based on mutual benefit and win-win results. It supports the role of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and relevant cooperation mechanisms in global energy governance, promotes global energy market stability and supply security, and the green energy transition within the framework of international multilateral cooperation, and contributes ideas and solutions to the sustainable development of global ener -
  融入多边能源治理。积极参与联合国、二十国集团、亚太经合组织、金砖国家等多边机制下的能源国际合作,在联合研究发布报告、成立机构等方面取得积极进展。中国与90多个国家和地区建立了政府间能源合作机制,与30多个能源领域国际组织和多边机制建立了合作关系。2012年以来,中国先后成为国际可再生能源署成员国、国际能源宪章签约观察国、国际能源署联盟国等。 Engagement in multilateral energy governance. China is an active participant in international energy cooperation under multilateral mechanisms such as the UN, G20, APEC and BRICS. It is making positive progress in joint research, releasing reports and founding agencies. China has set up intergovernmental energy cooperation mechanisms with over 90 countries and regions, and established ties with over 30 international organizations and multilateral mechanisms in the energy sector. Since 2012, China has become -
  倡导区域能源合作。搭建中国与东盟、阿盟、非盟、中东欧等区域能源合作平台,建立东亚峰会清洁能源论坛,中国推动能力建设与技术创新合作,为18个国家提供了清洁能源利用、能效等领域的培训。 A facilitator in regional energy cooperation. China has built regional energy cooperation platforms with ASEAN, the League of Arab States, African Union, and Central and Eastern Europe, and organized forums on clean energy at the East Asia Summit. It has also facilitated capacity building and cooperation on technological innovation and provided training for 18 countries in clean energy use and energy efficiency. -
(四)携手应对全球气候变化 4. Joining Forces to Tackle Global Climate Change -
  中国秉持人类命运共同体理念,与其他国家团结合作、共同应对全球气候变化,积极推动能源绿色低碳转型。 Embracing the vision of a global community of shared future, China works together with other countries to address global climate change and promote the transition to green and low-carbon energy. -
  加强应对气候变化国际合作。在联合国、世界银行、全球环境基金、亚洲开发银行等机构和德国等国家支持下,中国着眼能源绿色低碳转型,通过经验分享、技术交流、项目对接等方式,同相关国家在可再生能源开发利用、低碳城市示范等领域开展广泛而持续的双多边合作。 Strengthening international cooperation on climate change. With support from the UN, World Bank, Global Environment Facility, Asian Development Bank, and countries such as Germany, China is focusing on green and low-carbon energy transition and developing extensive and sustainable bilateral and multilateral cooperation with other countries in exploiting renewable energy and showcasing pilot low-carbon cities through experience sharing, technical exchanges, and project dovetailing. -
  支持发展中国家提升应对气候变化能力。深化气候变化领域南南合作,支持最不发达国家、小岛屿国家、非洲国家和其他发展中国家应对气候变化挑战。从2016年起,中国在发展中国家启动10个低碳示范区、100个减缓和适应气候变化项目和1000个应对气候变化培训名额的合作项目,帮助发展中国家能源清洁低碳发展,共同应对全球气候变化。 Supporting capacity building in developing countries to address climate change. China is committed to deeper South-South climate cooperation. It provides support to the least developed countries, small island countries, African countries and other developing countries in their response to climate change. Since 2016, China has set up 10 pilot low-carbon industrial parks, launched 100 mitigation and adaptation programs, and provided 1,000 training opportunities on climate change cooperation in developing coun -
  (五)共同促进全球能源可持续发展的中国主张 5. China’s Proposals for Developing Synergy on Sustainable Global Energy Development -
  人类已进入互联互通的时代,维护能源安全、应对全球气候变化已成为全世界面临的重大挑战。当前持续蔓延的新冠肺炎疫情,更加凸显各国利益休戚相关、命运紧密相连。中国倡议国际社会共同努力,促进全球能源可持续发展,应对气候变化挑战,建设清洁美丽世界。 Humanity has entered an era of connectivity when maintaining energy security and addressing global climate change have become major challenges confronting the whole world. The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic highlights all the more the interdependent interests of all countries and the interconnection of all peoples. China proposes that the international community should work together on the sustainable development of global energy, address the challenges of climate change, and build a cleaner and more beautiful w -
  协同推进能源绿色低碳转型,促进清洁美丽世界建设。应对气候变化挑战,改善全球生态环境,需要各国的共同努力。各国应选择绿色发展道路,采取绿色低碳循环可持续的生产生活方式,推动能源转型,协同应对和解决能源发展中的问题,携手应对全球气候变化,为建设清洁美丽世界作出积极贡献。 Jointly promoting the transition to green and low-carbon energy to build a cleaner and more beautiful world. It requires the joint effort of all countries to address the challenge of climate change and improve the global eco-environment. All countries should choose the green development path, adopt green, low-carbon and sustainable working practices and lifestyles, promote energy transition, and address problems relating to energy. We should join forces to tackle global climate change and make our contribut -
  协同巩固能源领域多边合作,加速经济绿色复苏增长。完善国际能源治理机制,维护开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的多边国际能源合作格局。深化能源领域对话沟通与务实合作,推动经济复苏和融合发展。加强跨国、跨地区能源清洁低碳技术创新和标准合作,促进能源技术转移和推广普及,完善国际协同的知识产权保护。 Jointly consolidating multilateral energy cooperation to accelerate the green economic recovery and growth. We should improve international governance and maintain an open, inclusive, balanced and reciprocal multilateral framework for international energy cooperation. We should expand communication and pragmatic cooperation in the energy sector to promote economic recovery and integrated development. We should strengthen transnational and cross-regional innovation on clean-energy and low-carbon technologies -
  协同畅通国际能源贸易投资,维护全球能源市场稳定。消除能源贸易和投资壁垒,促进贸易投资便利化,开展能源资源和产能合作,深化能源基础设施合作,提升互联互通水平,促进资源高效配置和市场深度融合。秉持共商共建共享原则,积极寻求发展利益最大公约数,促进全球能源可持续发展,共同维护全球能源安全。 Jointly facilitating international investment in energy trading to protect global market stability. We should eliminate energy trade and investment barriers, facilitate trade and investment, cooperate on energy resources and industrial capacity as well as infrastructure, improve connectivity, and promote efficient resource allocation and greater market integration. We should embrace the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, seek the greatest common ground to promote t -
  协同促进欠发达地区能源可及性,努力解决能源贫困问题。共同推动实现能源领域可持续发展目标,支持欠发达国家和地区缺乏现代能源供应的人口获得电力等基本的能源服务。帮助欠发达国家和地区推广应用先进绿色能源技术,培训能源专业人才,完善能源服务体系,形成绿色能源开发与消除能源贫困相融合的新模式。 Jointly improving energy access in underdeveloped areas to address energy poverty. We should join forces to realize the sustainable goal in the energy sector, and ensure access to basic energy services such as electricity for people in need in underdeveloped countries and regions. We should help underdeveloped countries and regions to popularize advanced green energy technologies, train energy professionals and improve energy services to integrate the efforts on green energy development and the elimination -
结束语 Conclusion -
  中国即将开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家的新征程。进入新的发展阶段,中国将继续坚定不移推进能源革命,加快构建清洁低碳、安全高效的能源体系,为2035年基本实现社会主义现代化、本世纪中叶全面建成社会主义现代化强国提供坚强的能源保障。 China is embarking on a new journey towards a modern socialist country in all respects. In this new development stage, it will remain committed to an energy revolution, and move faster to build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system, to lay a solid foundation for basically achieving socialist modernization in 2035 and becoming a great modern socialist country by the middle of the 21st century. -
  当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局。生态环境事关人类生存和永续发展,需要各国团结合作,共同应对挑战。中国将秉持人类命运共同体理念,继续与各国一道,深化全球能源治理合作,推动全球能源可持续发展,维护全球能源安全,努力实现更加普惠、包容、均衡、平等的发展,建设更加清洁、美丽、繁荣、宜居的世界。 The world today is experiencing a scale of change unseen in a century. The eco-environment has a direct bearing on human existence and its sustained development. Countries of the world need to work in solidarity to cope with the challenge. China will embrace the vision of a global community of shared future, work together with all countries to expand cooperation on global energy governance, promote the sustainable development of global energy, and protect global energy security. This is part of our commitme -
四个革命、一个合作 Four Reforms and One Cooperation -
创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享 innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared (development) -
供给侧结构性改革 restructuring of the supply side -
碳峰值 hit carbon dioxide emissions peak -
碳中和 carbon neutrality -
能源强度 energy use intensity -
增储上产 increase reserve and production volumes -